population expansion, population growth, energy consumption
As a result of increased food yields, the world’s population has expanded rapidly, and energy consumption has accelerated.
household equipment, different means of transport
People crave for a good standard of living, and they tend to use different household appliances and rely on different means of transport, including cars.
alternative, renewable energy sources
Companies in the energy sector have no interest in the development of renewable energy sources.
earn higher income, energy bills, fuel costs, economise on fuel/ use energy in environmentally responsible ways.
People have money to pay electricity bills and cover fuel costs, so they no longer feel the need to use energy in environmentally responsible ways.
depletion of water, spread of diseases
The overreliance on energy can have a negative effect on the economy. Soaring energy prices can raise the cost of operation of companies, and some companies may go bankrupt since they fail to make ends
meet. Another reason is that the country has to spend heavily in restoring the environment, cleaning up
pollution and increasing health care provision. This can cause budget deficit of a country and hurt the economy.
解释：产生废气，可能导致呼吸道疾病。解释2:开采煤炭产生污水。医疗开销增加。 energy prices soar, reduce the quality of life
The strong appetite for energy use can be harmful to health. Fumes created by burning fuels can increase the instances of respiratory diseases. Coal mining can cause water pollution, and many people may suffer from some water-related health conditions. People are more likely to visit doctors, and Medical costs are therefore higher.
raw materials, the manufacturing cost is higher, damage the economy,
The growing demand for energy can lead to a higher cost of living, which can affect the quality of life. Some resources are finite, and alternative energy sources fail to secure a supply of energy. Energy bills increase, and people have less money for other aspects of their lives.
oil exploration, coal mining, damage the environment, cause environmental degradation, cause pollution
Energy consumption can cause damage to the environment. The first reason is that using fossil fuels to generate electricity can create emissions. Meanwhile, oil and natural gas exploration can damage the ecology and create some pollutants. Finally, oil spills can pollute the marine environment.
raise environmental awareness, save energy, reduce consumption/ a wasteful use of energy
Another solution is to raise people’s awareness of the urgency of tackling the energy crisis. People need to have a good understanding of environmental consequences, the economic costs and public health issues of overusing energy. They will thus take action to save energy, which can slow the depletion of
impose a tax, curb energy use
Another way is to enforce laws to change the behaviour of individuals and businesses alike. A heavier tax can be imposed on fuel, and this can lead to a higher fuel cost, thereby discouraging people from using energy excessively. Another regulatory change is to impose sanctions on/fine heavy polluters, and this can encourage companies to use clean energy sources or cut down on energy consumption.
technological innovations/advances, alternative energy
The shortage of energy can be tackled by achieving fuel economy and developing alternative energy sources. Technological innovations can be promoted to cut the use of energy. Renewable resources can also be developed to prevent our reliance on conventional fuels.
nuclear accidents, nuclear waste, radioactive waste
One drawback of nuclear energy is that nuclear accidents have dire consequences and nuclear waste cannot be disposed of safely.
solar power, promoted on a large scale/used commercially
The cost of converting solar power or other clean energy sources into electricity is normally costly, and it is difficult to promote these resources on a large scale.
windmills, hurt birds, reshape landscape, destroy the environment
Massive windmills can hurt birds and destroy the environment.
financially viable, financially feasible
Progress is limited in making the development of clean energy financially feasible.
melting iceberg, rising sea level, marine environment, coastal cities
The changing climate can also cause environmental degradation. Glacier melts faster and the sea level rises rapidly, changing the marine ecosystem. It also poses a threat to animals and birds traditionally dwelling at arctic areas. The increase in floods and droughts can destroy forest and affect animal
habitat. The food sources for wildlife have also been affected by significant temperature variances.
extreme weather, crop failures
Global warming has a negative effect on the economy. Extreme weather conditions can affect traffic and the operation of factories. The revenue of businesses will drop. Meanwhile, floods and droughts can lead to crop failures. Therefore, the income of farmers will be affected as well.
解释：高温会导致很多病毒滋生，人们会患上一些疾病。 diseases are carried by mosquitoes
Global warming/ the rising world temperature can cause numerous diseases. It can cause the spread of viruses, and people are likely to contract diseases, such as malaria.
Climate change can also raise the cost of living for the public. They have to spend extra money on energy bills, since they need more air conditioning or heating when the weather is either extremely hot or unseasonably cold. In addition to this, they have to pay more tax to cover the expenditure on facilities and rescue efforts, such as flood defense, protect some cities from extreme weather events.
impose a tax, a drop in profit, damage the economy, green technology
To fight global warming, many countries choose to imposing a tax on businesses and households. This
can normally lead to a drop in profit and damage the economy, reducing resources available for developing green technology.
develop technology to adapt to a warmer planet
Companies may develop technology, such as building materials to keep homes cool, to adapt to a warmer planet.
population growth, demand increase
Population growth has driven the demand for water. 人们不喜欢节水 efficient use of water
Many people do not feel the need to achieve the efficient use of water.
rising sea levels, clean water
Water pollution and rising sea levels have reduced the amount of clean water available.
soil erosion, silt
Soil erosion has increased silt in rivers and contaminated water sources.
personal hygiene, taking a shower, brush teeth
Water is important to personal hygiene. Without water, we cannot take a shower and brush teeth.
Water is also important to our health. The access to tap water ensures we can wash food.
increase water charges, curb water consumption
Increasing water charges, can curb water consumption.
water saving, recycle water, collect rainwater
We should also adopt some water saving measures, such as equipment to recycle water and collect rainwater.
- Animal conservation, animal protection 动物保护
- ecological equilibrium 生态平衡
- hold seeds and prevent soil erosion保持种子和防止土壤侵蚀
- heavy floods严重的洪水
- fight dissertisation抵御土地荒漠化
- high-quality water高质量的的水
Animal conservation can help maintain ecological equilibrium. The survival of some animals plays a
key role in the health of forest and vegetation, as they eat fruit and spread seeds through their manure. A lush forest is important as trees can hold soil and prevent soil erosion caused by heavy floods, and
soil can provide nutrients to support the growth of flowers and grasses to fight desertisation. Meanwhile, Some fish can eat grasses in streams and ensure water of rivers flows naturally. Water
bodies, in turn, provide high-quality water for natural flora and fauna. In other words, If all animals are
well protected, the ecosystem can remain intact.
解释（A-B) —些动物已经在地球上生活了数百万年，通过对这些动物的分析，可以了解物种是如何进化 的，以及如何在地球景观和气候的剧烈变化中生存下来的
解释（B-C) —些重要的发明和发现，如雷达、防水材料和迷彩服的发明，被认为是归功于动物的研究， 包括蝙蝠、鲨鱼和爬行类动物
- advance knowledge and technology 提升知识和科技
- give insight into 洞察
- water-proof material 防水物质
- draw inspiration from intriguing species从有趣的物种中汲取灵感
Wildlife conservation can also help us advance knowledge and technology by analysing some species.
Some animals have been on earth for millions of years, and the analysis of these animals can give insight into how species evolve and survive the dramatic changes in the landscape and climate of the planet. Some significant inventions and discoveries, such as the invention of radar, water-proof
material and camouflage, have been credited to the research on animals, including bats, sharks and
reptiles. The preservation of all species on earth can ensure that inventors can continue to draw inspiration from intriguing species.
解释（A-B)为了防止物种灭绝，我们应该考虑如何减少对动物栖息地的破坏和人类活动的环境成本 举例：我们需要发展更加有效的耕作方法，停止开荒砍树去耕种，利用清洁能源减缓全球变暖，创造更多 可循环利用的材料去减少资源消耗
develop technology 发展科技
protect the environment 保护环境
reduce the damage to animal habitat减少动物栖息地的破坏
develop more productive farming methods发展更有效的耕种方法
Animal protection can also push us to developing technology for protecting the environment. To prevent species from dying out, we should consider how to reduce the damage to animal habitat and the environmental cost of human activity. For example, we need to develop more productive farming methods to halt land clearing for farming purposes, use clean energy sources to slow global warming, and create more recyclable material to cut the consumption of resources.
- medical treatment 药物治疗
- increase the money on the animals conservation 增加动物保护的钱
- guard conservation areas 保护保护区域
- use up the money 把钱花光
- protect animals from poachers 保护动物免受到捕猎者的侵害
- educationand medical care教育和医疗
- essential services重要的服务
However, animal protection usually takes a large amount of money and sometimes puts the government under economic pressure. It may involve the building of breeding centres to restore the population of endangered species and the hiring of staff to guard conservation areas to protect animals from poachers. This may use up the money otherwise available for essential services, such as education and medical
- subject animals to trauma 让动物受到伤痛
- animal experimentations 动物实验
- non-medical products 非医疗用品
- beauty products美容产品
- moral principles道德原则
- exploit living animals利用活着 的动物
- self-interest 自己的利益
- be kept in poor conditions被关在恶劣的环境
Animal experimentation is sometimes challenged on grounds of moralty as there are many instances of
animal abuse. It is ethically wrong to subject animals to trauma especially when the purpose is to
develop some non-medical products such as beauty products. It is against moral principles to exploit living animals for our self-interest. Meanwhile, animal maltreatment is commonplace in labs, where animals are kept in poor conditions. Animals are hurt and killed sometimes for wrong reasons.
解释（A-B)对动物进行测试有助于科学家了解动物在生病时的反应以及药物是如何起作用的 解释（B-C)这有助于开发新的药物和治疗方法，可以治愈许多疾病和治疗患者 对比：几乎没有其他选择可以替代动物实验
- animal experimentations 动物实验
- animal testing 动物测试
- medical discoveries 医学发现
- make a difference 改变
- cure diseases and treat patients 治疗疾病和病人
- alternatives 可以替代的选择
- animal-based tests用动物做实验
The supporters of animal experimentation think that animal testing can lead to medical discoveries that save millions of lives. Doing tests on animals helps scientists understand how animals react when given
an illness and how medicine makes a difference. This can help develop new drugs and procedures that can cure many diseases and treat patients. At the moment, there are few alternatives to animal-based
解释（A-B): —些动物园还训练动物以娱乐游客。如果动物没有按照训练者的指示行事，就会被殴打或鞭 打
- morally wrong 道德上是错的
- keep animals in zoos 把动物放在动物园
- be captured and kept in the cages被抓并保存在笼子里
- maintain their natural behavioural traits保持自然的行为特征
- interact with other members 和其他成员互动
- lose freedom to hunt for food 丟失了觅食的自由
- entertain tourists 娱乐观众
- animal welfare campaigners 动物权益人士
- have no right to use animals for entertainment and profit没有权利将动物用在娱乐和利润
Many people think that it is morally wrong to keep animals in zoos since this is against their instincts.
Animals are captured and kept in the cages but in their traditional home areas, they can roam freely and maintain their natural behavioural traits, such as interacting with other members of the same species.
Animals lose freedom to hunt for food and they are either overfed or starving. Additionally, some zoos
train animals for the purpose of entertaining tourists. Animals are beaten or whipped if failing to behave as instructed by trainers. Animal welfare campaigners argue that we have no right to use animals for entertainment and profit.
lab animals, subject to maltreatment, poor living conditions
Lab animals are subject to maltreatment. Poor living conditions are also a problem.
解释（A-B)把动物留在动物园的另一个好处是它可以帮助人们提高动物保护意识。动物园之旅是有益的 和有教育意义的，因为游客可以了解动物的生活方式以及使这些物种处于危险之中的因素 解释（A-B)接触动物，包括喂养动物，对孩子们来说是一种不可忘记的经历，提升大家去保护这些动物的兴趣
- rare animals or endangered species 珍贵物种或者濒危物种
- receive special cares and treatment 接受 特别的照顾和治疗
- face threats from predators or hunters接受来自捕猎者或者猎人的威胁
- raise the awareness of animal conservation 提升动物保护的意识
- protect threatened species from extinction保护珍稀动物不让它们灭绝
- keep animals in the zoos把动物放在动物园里面
- gain knowledge 获得知识
- an unforgettable experience for children 对孩子是一次难忘的经验
- generate the interest in 激发兴趣
- keep those lovely creatures alive 让动物生存
Zoos are sometimes supported for the important role they play in preserving biodiversity. Rare animals
or endangered wildlife can receive care and treatment in zoos, where they can reproduce without facing threats from predators or hunters. Zoos function as conservation centres where scientists study animals
and their behaviours to identify the best way to protect threatened species from extinction. Another
advantage of keeping animals in the zoos is that it can help people raise the awareness of animal conservation. Zoo trips are rewarding and educational, as visitors can gain knowledge about the living styles of animals and the factors putting these species at risk. The contact with animals, including feeding animals, is an unforgettable experience for children, generating the interest in keep these lovely creatures alive.
解释（A-B ): 吃肉也会増加病毒传播的风险，譬如说禽流感
解释（A-B ):肉类不好保鲜，坏了的话可能会 导致中毒
Meat consumption is also harmful to health. Eating meat can cause obesity and increase the intake of cholesterol- a trigger for heart diseases. The strong demand for meat can also drive the need for meat production and livestock farming, but poultry is sometimes the medium for spreading viruses such as bird flu. Finally, if not preserved well, meat can be spoiled and rotten meat can increase the instances of food poisoning.
meat consumption, farm animals
Meat consumption has increased dramatically, and livestock as well as farm animals are killed in factory farms.
There are also ethical arguments against meat consumption. Killing animals is cruel, and animal welfare activists challenge the justifications for slaughtering animals for food, especially when there are alternatives to meat today. It is also inhumane to raise livestock on a large scale in farms. Animals are kept in small space to prevent energy loss to ensure they grow fast to meet consumption needs.
a source of protein
Eating meat is essential to health. Meat is a primary source of protein, calorie and some nutrients essential to our health, such as calcium. Human beings have evolved to adapt to meat consumption. Eating meat can ensure the health of muscles and bones. Without meat as part of our diet, we may suffer from malnutrition. Children may not grow healthily without meet as part of their meals. Some people such as athletes and manual workers need meat consumption to maintain the level of energy and stamina for performance.
time-honoured tradition, traditional celebrations
Eating meat can also increase the joy people can gain in celebrating some special festivals. Meat was difficult to come by in the past, so people cooked meat on special festivals to show the extent to which they attached importance to these festivals, especially those which have religious implications. They also prepared meat dishes to serve important guests . Some traditional meat dishes gradually formed an important part of feasts and banquets on special occasions, such as eating turkey for Thanksgiving.
Without meat, people would experience a lower level of pleasure on these special days.
provide companionship, combat the sense of loneliness animals can provide companionship to combat the sense of loneliness.
foster a sense of responsibility
It can foster a sense of responsibility among children, as they learn how to take care of animals.
解释：制止这种行为的最好办法是颁布法律，例如惩罚破坏森林的公民或公司。严厉的惩罚起到威慑作用。 preserve the environment, driven by self-interest, clear land, curb behaviour
Laws can play an important part in preserving the environment. Driven by self-interest, Individuals and companies are sometimes involved in environment-damaging activities, such as clearing land for farming or housing development. The best way to curb this kind of behaviour is to enact laws, such as punishing citizens or companies who are caught damaging forest. Harsh penalties serve as a deterrent.
financial incentive, eco-friendly technology, eco-labelled products
The government can provide some Financial incentives to promote eco-benign behaviour. Developing or adopting green technology can be costly, so government support is important. Some business-friendly policies such as a tax break can be provided to encourage companies to develop eco-friendly technology. People who purchase eco-labelled products can be given subsidies.
public transport/ private cars/ carbon carbon emissions/ shopping bags
The environmental problems can also be mitigated by changing citizens5 attitudes and lifestyles. It is necessary to keep the public well-informed about eco-friendly lifestyle choices, when many of them are not aware of the environmental consequences of their habits. Individuals can select eco-friendly ways of life to reduce the use of fuels and the waste which causes environmental pollution. People can walk or cycle to school or work, use public transport instead of private cars to reduce carbon carbon emissions. They can also reuse shopping bags and recycle cans and bottles to reduce waste. If people do not feel obliged to change their lifestyles, strict laws and the promotion of green technology would not make a huge difference.
clean energy/wind power/solar power/ renewable resources
Technology can be seen as a solution to environmental problems caused by modern life. Our daily life has an impact on the environment, whether or not we try to cut down on energy use, and it is basically impossible to be carbon-neutral in the modem world. For example, the use of electrical equipment involves consumption of electricity, which is normally generated by burning fossil fuels. Therefore, only green technology can deal with this problem. The use of clean energy sources such as wind power and solar power can support our daily lives without creating greenhouse gas emissions. These technological advances can balance the needs of modern life and the objective of sustainability.