commit crime 犯罪
benefits system 福利系统
maintain a basic standard of living 维持基本的生活 标准
get money to make a living 获得钱
One reason why some people commit crime is that they do not have a job or any source of income. If the country does not have a good benefits system, they will not be able to maintain a basic standard of living. They have to commit crimes, such as robberies, theft or selling drug, to get money to make a living.
A.贫富差异 B.因为他们觉得不公平 C.报复社会
economic divide, a wide gap between rich and poor, economic disparity,贫富差距
feel unfair, inequitable感觉不公平，不平等
The widening gap between rich and poor may also lead to some criminal activity as people feel unfair and resentful. The country does not have policies of income redistribution to use part of the wealth of the upper class to support those living on low income. Disadvantaged people feel hopeless, as they struggle with basic needs. They may commit offences, such as damaging public properties, to vent their anger.
limited access to education 没有机会接受教育
behavioral norms 行为准则
Another main reason is that people do not have access to education and they do not know behavioral norms. They may be from deprived backgrounds and unaware of what is right or wrong behavior. They may leave school early without attending lessons to learn about laws. They do not know what consequences they will have to face if they break the law, or underestimate the consequences of committing crimes.
manage emotions 掌控情绪
lose temper 发脾气
show empathy 通情
Genetics can be a predictor of criminal behavior as it determines one’s temperament and character. One section of the human brain is responsible for managing emotions, but some people are born to suffer from some emotion-handling deficit. They have difficulty in controlling anger and in empathizing with others. This is why they are predisposed to violence.
negligent parents 不好好管理孩子的父母
discipline children 管教孩子
offensive behaviour 攻击 的行为
behave poorly 不端行为
Negligent parents are also to blame for the offensive behavior of the younger generation. The law-breakers may not learn boundaries of behavior in formative years, possibly because their parents are too busy to teach rules or not aware of the importance of discipline. Children may behave poorly at school, and inappropriate behavior such as bullying, yelling at classmates and cursing eventually evolves into serious offences, if not corrected by adults.
violent content/image 暴力的内容，图片
copy aggressive behaviour/acts of violence 模仿攻击性行为/暴力行为
The increased exposure to violence in the media is possibly another factor contributing to crime. People play games and watch films which contain violent imagery. They may gradually recognize violence as an acceptable way of releasing negative emotions and settling conflicts, or they may overlook the consequences of acting violently.
a prison sentence/term,坐牢
have a deterrent effect, deter crime 对犯罪有震慑作用
A prison sentence can be an effective way to reduce crime, as it can serve as a deterrent for those would be law-breakers. The likelihood of losing freedom can make people think twice before violating laws. Some of them will not risk spending a number of months in jail without living a normal life, thereby choosing to obey laws.
improve employ ability 提高教育能力
better employment outcomes 更好的就业结果
The most desirable preventative measure against crime is possibly education, as schools improve skills and impart the code of conduct. Children can have a good understanding of acceptable and desirable behavior, learning from school rules, textbooks and instructions of teachers. More importantly, well-educated people can find a satisfying job easily, if they achieve high grades at school and gain a university degree. If they live comfortably, they will never think of committing crime.
first-time offenders 初犯
petty crimes 轻微罪行
juvenile delinquency 青少年犯罪
foster a sense of responsibility 提高责任感
criminal record 罪记录
Community service is possibly a solution to crime as it fosters a sense of responsibility and minimizes the consequences of a criminal record on one’s career. This is ideal for first-time offenders, law-breakers under the age of 18 and those who commit petty crimes. By doing unpaid work for community, such as cleaning streets and removing graffiti, they will develop a sense of pride as meaningful members of community. Meanwhile, this kind of punishment does not threaten their career as they can still attend school and find work like law-abiding citizens. This can prevent re-offending.
surveillance cameras 摄像头
security cameras 监视摄像头
increase visibility of police officers 增加警察的可视性
arming the police 武装警察
equipping the police with weapons 警察携带武器
The improvement of security measures is another method to fight crime. The increase in surveillance cameras can deter people from breaking laws, as their images caught by cameras are used as evidence for successful prosecution. If more police officers patrol on streets, especially when equipped with weapons, it can also have a deterrent effect on offenders. People would understand that they cannot get away with the offences they commit.
have a deterrent effect on potential criminals, reduce crime
Imprisonment has a deterrent effect on potential criminals. It is an effective method to reduce crime.
protect law-abiding citizens, recidivist, reform their behaviour
Keeping criminals in prison can help protect law-abiding citizens from crime, especially the harm inflicted by recidivists, who cannot be reformed easily.
improve job skills, find jobs, be less likely to reoffend, the younger generation
Young offenders who have opportunities to improve job skills can find jobs despite having a history of bad behavior. They are less likely to reoffend.
avoid contact with repeat offenders
This can prevent their contact with repeat offenders.
be aware of legal and social responsibility, violate laws
People who know legal and social responsibilities are less likely to violate laws.
reduce the impact of the criminal record on young people, reintegrate into society
Another advantage of education and training is that it can reduce the impact of the criminal record on young people when they attempt to reintegrate into society.