解释：化学肥料的应用和高产作物的发展，加快了粮食作物的生长，从而提高了产量。同时，化学 物质可以用来延缓水果的成熟并延长新鲜农产品的保质期，因此农民生产的食物更有可能被送至喰客手中， 而不是腐坏或腐烂。最后，转基因食品的发明，如抗虫害和干旱的食品，可以增加丰收的机会。粮食生产 和销售得越多，个人和企业会挣钱越多。
boost the economy,application of chemical fertilisers, the development of high-yield crops,speed up the growth of food plants, increase crop yields,delay ripening of fruit ,extend the shelf life,be delivered to , be resistant to pests and droughts, increase the chance of good harvests
Technological advances in farming and food production can boost the economy. The application of chemical fertilisers and the development of high-yield crops, for example, speed up the growth of food plants, thereby increasing yields. Meanwhile, chemicals can be used to delay ripening of fruit and extend the shelf life of fresh produce, so the food produced by farmers is more likely to be delivered to eaters, rather than being spoiled or rotten. Finally, the invention of GM food, such as those resistant to pests and droughts, can increase the chance of good harvests. If more food is produced and sold, individuals and businesses can certainly make more money.
address the food shortage, give people more choices, contemporary farming methods, keep animals in small enclosures, prevent energy loss, deal with food security issues, fight hunger worldwide, add more choices to our diet, food transportation, refrigeration services and facilities ,travel long distances to, satisfy our appetite for food, have a balanced diet
The increase in food production can also address the food shortage and give people more choices, thereby improving the standard of living. Contemporary farming methods, such as keeping animals in small enclosures to prevent energy loss, can ensure that more meat is produced by every farm. It can deal with food security issues and fight hunger worldwide. Additionally, the creation of some new food varieties, such as seedless melon and some man-made meat products, can add more choices to our diet. What’s more, the development in food transportation and refrigeration services and facilities allow food to travel long distances to consumers in different regions. It not only satisfies our appetite for food but also helps us to have a balanced diet.
解释：转基因技术已成功培育出具有特殊性能的新品种，如抗病毒、抗虫、抗寒、耐盐、耐碱等。因此， 食物可以在恶劣的条件下生产。更高的食物产量可以稳定甚至降低食品成本，降低大都数消费者的生活成 本。
lead to lower food prices, transgenic technology, cultivate new species ,virus and pest-resistant, cold-resistant, salt and alkali-resistant, harsh conditions, cut food costs ,reduce the cost of living
The innovations in food technology can also lead to lower food prices. Transgenic technology has successfully cultivated new species which have special qualities, like virus and pest-resistant, cold-resistant, salt and alkali-resistant. It means that food can be produced in harsh conditions. Higher food yields can help stabilize or even cut food costs for most consumers, reducing the cost of living for them.
解释：一些创新的耕作做法可能有利于环境。这些做法减少了对土地等自然资源的使用。例如，室内农业 和无土壤农业不使用可耕地，却可以供应食物。这意味着农民不需要清理土地和砍伐树木来耕作。同时， 集约化耕作等方法也可以减少土地的使用。
innovative farming practices, be beneficial to the environment, reduce the use of natural resources, indoor farming and soil-free farming, arable land, clear land and cut down trees, intensive farming
Some innovative farming practices can be beneficial to the environment. These practices reduce the use
of natural resources, such as land. For example, indoor farming and soil-free farming can provide food without using arable land. This means that farmers do not have to clear land and cut down trees for farming. Meanwhile, methods such as intensive farming can also reduces the use of land.
解释：人造化肥和农药在农业中的大量使用会引起土地退化，这些有毒物质也会污染地下水源。食物生产 中使用的机械和不同的交通工具会增加排放。集约农业会增加能源消耗，因为动物供暖会消耗更多电能。 更让人心忧的是转基因植物的栽培会减少作物多样性，因为人们逐渐舍弃传统作物。这对生态系统的影响 是不可估量的，因为基因库会从根本上发生改变。
cutting-edge agricultural technology , damage and pollute the environment,massive use of man-made
fertilizers and pesticides , cause land degradation, pollute underground water sources ,machinery and
different means of transportation,increase emissions , increase energy consumption, keep animals warm,cultivation of GE crops, reduce diversity of crops, change the gene pool fundamentally
On the other hand, cutting-edge agricultural technology can damage and pollute the environment. The massive use of man-made fertilizers and pesticides in farming can cause land degradation, and toxins can pollute underground water sources. Machinery and different means of transportation used in food production can increase emissions. Intensive farming can increase energy consumption, as more electricity is used to keep animals warm. An even more worrying problem is the cultivation of GE crops, which can reduce diversity of crops, as people gradually abandon those conventional plants. The effect on the ecosystem is immeasurable as the gene pool can be changed fundamentally.
解释：在植物和动物生产过程中使用的化IB和农药这些有毒物质或者抗生素等，会导致毒素残留在植物或 动物体内，从而引起食用者食物中毒。而有些转基因生物产品也可能含有有毒物质和过敏源，会对人体健 康产生不利影响，严重的甚至可以致癌或导致某些遗传疾病。
do harm to, chemical fertilizers and pesticides , toxic substances or antibiotics, poisoning of food users, genetically modified biological products, contain toxic substances and allergens, have adverse effects on human health, cause cancer or lead to certain genetic diseases
Another negative effect is the possible harm the modern technology may do to human beings. Chemical
fertilizers and pesticides used in the production of plants and animals, such as toxic substances or antibiotics, will cause toxins to remain in plants or animals, which will lead to poisoning of food users. Some genetically modified biological products may also contain toxic substances and allergens, which may have adverse effects on human health, and may even cause cancer or lead to certain genetic diseases.
mass produced, labour cost, electricity bills, manufacturing costs
One benefit of using machines is that products can be mass produced and prices can drop, which can benefit consumers and the whole society. Because of mechanization, companies do not need to hire many employees, and the labour cost declines. Meanwhile, manufacturing costs, including electricity bills, will also be reduced. This means that consumers can purchase more goods with the same amount of money, and enjoy an improvement in the standard of living. A drop in the production costs can also make products more competitive, thereby contributing to economic growth.
maximise the profit, the running cost, repetitive tasks, automated factory, fill orders, human labour,machine-made products, made by hand, labour cost, increase corporate profits
Mechanization can maximise the profit of companies by enhancing production efficiency, improving product quality and cutting the running cost. Machines can perform repetitive tasks more accurately and efficiently than human workers, meaning that an automated factory can fill orders faster and create more revenue than a plant relying on human labour. Meanwhile, machines operate 24/7 without experiencing fatigue and negative emotions like human beings, so machine-made products are normally of higher quality than those made by hand. Finally, mechanisation allows firms to employ
fewer people, thus reducing the labour cost and increasing corporate profits.
complete work, leisure activites, develop hobbies, stressful work, experience a sense of well-being, work-related accidents, the medical system
Another advantage is that machines are able to complete work efficiently and people have more time to do leisure activities and develop hobbies/interests. Machines can operate 24 hours a day as they are controlled by programmes. These machines can free people from stressful work, so workers can have more leisure time and experience a sense of well-being. As people have more leisure time to relax and
cope with fatigue, work-related accidents will decline and the spending on the medical system will be
解释：A机械化B人们不用做那么多重复性工作C科技创新 (A-B):由于机器处理手工工作，人们可以花宝贵的时间读书，获取知识，进行实验，检查工作程序和测 试他们的创造性想法。这些都为科技创新铺平了道路。
technological innovation, manual work, carry out experiments, creative ideas, research and development
Mechanization can free people from doing repetitive work, which can help to contribute to their technological innovation. As machines take care of manual work, people can spend their valuable time reading books, gaining knowledge, carrying out experiments, examining work procedures and testing their creative ideas. All these tasks pave the way for scientific and technological innovations.
Additionally, enterprises can use the money that they once used to hire workers for research and development. These companies will have more inventions.
解释（a-b):机器很少犯错，自动化工厂只需要几个人就可以管理 解释（B-C):消费力下降，公司利润会下降 解释（C的拓展）：很多人的生活水准会下降
lose jobs, in the short run, an automated factory, cut jobs, public consumption, damage/hurt the economy, hurt the standard of living
On the other hand, one possible consequence of mechanization is that some people may lose jobs and unemployment may have an impact on the economic growth in the short run. Machines hardly make mistakes and an automated factory only needs several workers to manage; therefore, companies can cut jobs. Public consumption decreases and companies create less revenue, thereby damaging/hurting the economy. It can hurt the standard of living of those people who are unable to retrain for new employment.
have a negative impact on/ manual operation/factory workers/ lose jobs/job requirements/ repetitive work/ jobless rate/ unemployment rate/ anti – social behaviour/ social unrest
Mechanization may be a threat to public order since it may make many people unemployed. In the era of mechanization, a large number of machines can replace the manual operation, due to their higher output and better performance. Factory workers may lose their jobs, and if they are not well-educated,
they are not able to retrain for other positions in the job market. A higher unemployment rate may even result in an increase in anti – social behaviour and cause social unrest as jobless people are unhappy with the standard of living.
解释（A-B):对于消费者来说，他们可能更喜欢购买机器制造的产品，这些产品通常可以以较低的成本获 得。由于工匠和技术人员无法谋生，他们将放弃生计，手工制作产品的技能将消失。市场上的定制产品将 会减少。
hand-made products, mass-produced products, production cost, earn a living, give up livelihoods, make products by hand, custom-made products
Mechanisation will threaten traditional hand-made products as well as the skills involved in making these products. Compared with mass-produced products, many traditional handicrafts may take a longer time and cost more for production, so the production cost may be higher and the profit may be smaller. As for consumers, they may prefer to buy the products made by machines, which are normally available at a lower cost. As craftsmen and technicians fail to earn a living, they will give up their livelihoods and the skills of making products by hand will die out. There will be less custom-made products available in the market.
解释（A-B):像登月、空间探索和发送火星探测器等太空科技需要高水平的科技科学知识 举例：设计可以让宇航员在外太空安全工作的航天器 解释（C的结果）：科学发明创造也可以用于商业用途
- moon landing 登月
- space exploration 空间探索
- send rover to Mars 发送火星探测器
- in the outer space在外太空
- in harsh conditions在恶劣的条件下
- sophisticated machines精密机器
Investing in space missions help to promote scientific progress. Space missions such as moon landing, space exploration and sending rover to Mars require a high level of technological and scientific knowledge, such as the design of spacecrafts that allow astronauts to work safely in the outer space. The discoveries and inventions of scientists can be used commercially. For example, the material used in making probes which can function in harsh conditions on another planet is now applied for the production of sophisticated machines on earth.
- space tourism, space tour 太空旅游
- a wide range of tasks —系列任务
- launch a rocket 发射火箭
- provide assistance to space stations 协助空间站工作
The investment in space missions can also create employment, especially when space tourism has the potential to evolve into an industry. There are many technicians and engineers working to support a wide range of tasks related to space projects, such as launching a rocket and providing assistance to space stations. In the future, if space tours are organised regularly for rich tourists, more people should be recruited to fill relevant positions.
- find a habitable planet 找到一个宜居星球
- sustain our civilisation 延续我们的文明
- at some point 在某一时刻
- nuclear wars 核战争
- anasteroidcrash 小行星撞击
The spending on space science is also justified by the fact that it is part of our effort to find a habitable planet to sustain our civilisation. There are concerns that our planet can be destroyed at some point in the future, possibly by nuclear wars and an asteroid crash. It is advisable to prepare for the doomsday, and searching for an alternative to the earth is the first step. For instance, some countries are evaluating the possiblity of migrating to Mars, where they believe they can find water to support human habitation. Artworks, culturally significant objects, crops and animals can also be sent to the new home planet to ensure they can be preserved for future generations.
- finance space programmes 资助太空项目
- land a probe on moon 发送月球探测器
- achieve its purpose 达到目的
- the standard of living 生活质量
Sometimes it is difficult to garner support from the public when the government intends to finance space programmes. People do not understand the implications of the investment in space missions, such as landing a probe on moon. It can take many years for a programme to achieve its purpose. Investing too much money in space missions will cause a drop in money available for other areas such as education and medical services. It can also affect the standard of living.
- boost the country’s economic development 促进国家经济的发展
- technological innovations 科技创新
- state-of-the-art technologies 最先进的技术
- create revenue 创造收入
- favorable competitive advantages 有利的竞争优势
- international markets 国际市场
- economic benefits 经济利益
Government investment in science and technology can help to boost the country’s economic development. Scientific research lays the foundation for technological innovations, which can support the development of new products, such as medicine, machines and gadgets. All these state-of-the-art technologies can create revenue for companies and a country. Meanwhile, technological innovations can improve productivity and the quality of products of manufacturers, as machines are invented and systems are optimised. Companies which develop these technologies have favorable competitive advantages over competitors in the international markets, yielding economic benefits for the country.
- persistent problems 持续的问题
- medical research 医学研究
- healthy lifestyle 健康的生活方式
- effective drugs 有效的药物
- medical equipment 医疗设备
- life span 寿命
- fatal diseases 致命疾病
- effective chemotherapy for cancer癌症的有效化疗
- green technology环保科技
- new sources of energy 新能源
- fossil fuel consumptions 化石燃料的消耗
- a wider range of food options 食品种类的选择
- improve their quality of life改善他们的生活质量
- tackle famine解决饥荒问题
- increase foodyields增加粮食产量
Government spending on science and technology is also justified by the fact that technology helps to improve people’s living standards. Scientific research can advance our knowledge of the physical world, while technology can tap into such knowledge to deal with some persistent problems which have affected us for decades or centuries. Another example is medical research as well as breakthroughs, which will increase people’s knowledge of nutrition and healthy lifestyle, provide them with more effective drugs and medical equipment, and even extend people’s life span with vaccines to prevent fatal diseases and more effective chemotherapy for cancer. In addition, government investment in green technology can help people find new sources of energy and cut down on fossil fuel consumption, thus protecting the environment and making the earth more livable. Last but not the least, investments in food science and technology can offer people a wider range of food options to improve their quality of life, and tackle famine by increasing food yields
- scientifically literate 科学文化
- develop logical and critical thinking 培养逻辑思维和批判性思维
- carry out experiments 进行试验
- practical skills 实践经验
- build models 制造模型
- gather information 收集信息
- scientific questions 科学问题
- scientific career 科学的职业生涯
- solutions to problems解决问题的办法
The investment in science teaching can also benefit the country in the sense that more students will become scientifically literate and develop logical and critical thinking. Whenever they have a theory or hypothesis, they will try to carry out experiments or tests to prove or disprove it. Young people who engage in scientific activity from a young age have practical skills such as building models and gathering information to answer scientific questions. Whether or not they will work in the scientific career, they can apply such skills to searching for solutions to problems. A country can benefit from having workers equipped with such skills and thinking.
- driving force 驱动力
- have a negative impact on 有负面的影响
- live below the poverty line 生活在 贫困线以下
- outer space exploration外太空探索
- basic needs基本需求
- survival needs生存需求
Although the government’s investment in science and technology is the driving force of the country’s progress, too much investment in science and technology will also have a negative impact on people’s lives. In some countries, many people still live below the poverty line. If a large amount of money is invested in science and technology, such as outer space exploration, rather than addressing the basic needs like food and clothing, this will impact negatively on the life of the people in these countries. It is true that scientific programmes do not yield fast returns while the public are in need of immediate support for their survival needs.
- scientific projects 科学项目
- illegal or unethical projects 非法或不道德项目
- private businesses 私企
- financial incentive 经济动机
- launch some tests or experiments 进行实验
- law or moral principles法律或道德原则
- genetic engineering基因工程
- gene pool基因库
It is not easy to put all scientific projects under scrutiny and some illegal or unethical projects can have a negative effect on society. There are some private businesses or scientists who have the financial incentive to launch some tests or experiments against the law or moral principles. Some experiments in the field of cloning and genetic engineering fall into this category, as it risk changing the gene pool of animals and human beings. Some projects on weaponry are also a threat to humanity, if some weapons of mass destruction are invented and fall into wrong hands.