1 雅思写作城市发展类观点论据：城市交通[the_ad id=”870″]
1.1 交通拥堵的原因[the_ad id=”868″]
- traffic congestion, traffic jams 交通堵塞
- car ownership 汽车拥有率
- the main means of travel 主要 的交通方式
- peak hours高峰时段
The main reason for traffic congestion is that car ownership has increased significantly. People now earn higher salaries in the city, so they are able to afford a car. Driving cars has become the main means of travel. Traffic jams are especially serious during peak hours, when people drive to the city centre.
- live in outer suburbs住在郊区
- drive to work开车去上班
- everyday occurance每天发生的事情
Another reason is that cities are expanding and people have to live in outer suburbs. They choose to live in the suburbs as housing is more affordable. Commuting is, however, a problem since they have to drive to work every day. In cities which only have several main roads leading to the city centre, traffic congestion is an everyday occurance.
- poorly-designed transport facilities 设计拙劣的交通设施
- rely on 依赖于
- cycle to work 骑自行车去上班
- transportation links 交通枢纽
- get stuck in 堵塞
Poorly-designed transport facilities are possibly another reason why people today rely on driving. City roads are too narrow and there are no lanes for cycling, so people do not feel safe to cycle to work. Meanwhile, transportation links are not well-developed, meaning that it is not easy for people to get to work by train or bus. As there are more cars on the road, it is not unusual for people to get stuck in a traffic jam every day.
1.2 交通堵塞导致的问题[the_ad id=”868″]
- traffic problems 交通问题
- damage the economy 损害经济
- be late for work 上班迟到
- undermine their productivity 降低效率
- other vehicles 其他交通工具
- deliver goods 送货
- affect the sales of companies影响公司的销售
Traffic problems can damage the economy, if not solved. Commuters will be late for work and this can undermine their productivity. Meanwhile, if roads are congested, it is difficult for vans and other vehicles to deliver goods to different parts of the city, which can affect the sales of companies.
- affect people’s mood 影响人们心情
- lose temper 发脾气
- drive through red lights 闯红灯
- exceed the speed limit 超速
- road rage 公路暴力
It will affect people’s mood and traffic accidents will increase as well. People who get stuck in a traffic jam can lose temper easily. They may drive through red lights and exceed the speed limit. Road rage will also surge as people are unable to keep their appointments and get to some place on time.
1.3 如何解决交通拥堵[the_ad id=”868″]
- public transportation services 公共交通服务
- get around easily 轻松出行
- taking the metro or bus 搭地铁或公交车
- have access to可以利用
- modes of transport交通方式
The improvement of public transportation services can be a solution to traffic congestion. If people can get around easily by taking the metro or bus, they are less likely to travel by car. People living in different communities can have access to public transport, and buses or trains can take them to different parts of the city. If services are punctual, reliable and affordable, more people would turn to these modes of transport.
- broaden roads 拓宽道路
- traffic gridlock 交通堵塞
- accommodate more vehicles 容纳更多车
- at a time —次
- ring roads 环形路
- motorways 快车道
- taking different routes 开不同路线
Building and broadening roads can also solve the traffic gridlock. Broad roads can accommodate more vehicles at a time, so traffic congestion is less likely to happen. Ring roads, motorways and other roads can be built to allow motorists to go to the CBD by taking different routes.
解释（A-B):燃油税增加，驾驶员就必须每个月花更多钱在汽油上解释（A-B): —些城市还征收堵塞费， 所以司机进城的时候必须支付额外费用
- fuel tax 燃油税
- impose congestion charges 征收堵塞费
- pay extra fees 支付额外费用
- enter the urban centre进入市中心
- deter people from driving阻止人们开车
Another possibly solution is to make driving expensive. The fuel tax can be increased so motorists have to pay more for fuel costs every month. Meanwhile, some cities may also impose congestion charges, so drivers have to pay extra fees when they enter the urban centre. These methods can deter people from driving.
2 雅思写作城市发展类观点论据：房屋建筑[the_ad id=”870″]
2.1 保护老建筑的好处[the_ad id=”868″]
解释（A-B )此外，建筑可以让人们了解建筑如何支持人们的生活方式、社会活动和社区生活。 解释（C的结果）：如果旧建筑被拆除，年轻一代将没有机会在未来欣赏他们祖先的建筑成就。
- The protection of old buildings 保护老建筑
- protect the country’s heritage 保护国家的遗产
- preserve a country’s history 保护一个国家的历史
- visually spectacular building 视觉宏伟的建筑
- architectual traditions 建筑传统
- appreciate architectural achievements 欣赏建筑成就
The protection of old buildings can help protect the country’s heritage and preserve a country’s history. These buildings may be examples of the architectural style of a country, showing how a visually spectacular building is defined in this culture. People in the modern world can see the unique features of architectural traditions of a specific area, such as the design of columns and pillars, the selection of building material and the art of decorations. Additionally, buildings can give an insight into how architecture supported lifestyles, social activities and community life of people living in the past. If old structures are demolished, younger generations would not have the opportunity to appreciate architectural achievements of their ancestors in the future.
解释（A-C )旅游业的收入不仅为当地人提供了就业机会，而且还确保了政府为这些历史景点的 维修和维护提供资金，这可能非常昂贵。
- The conservation of old buildings 保护古老建筑
- give character to a city 给城市增添特色
- love taking photos 喜欢拍照
- identify citiesor countries by architecturalwonders 通过建筑奇观辨认出城市或者国家
- the revenue of the travel industry 旅游业的收入
- repair and maintenance of these historical attractions 维修和维护历史景点
The conservation of old buildings, especially landmarks of a city, is also justified by the fact that they are tourist attractions. These buildings give character to a city, and tourists love taking photos in front of these iconic buildings. They can easily identify cities or countries by architectural wonders like the pyramids in pyramids in Egypt. The revenue of the travel industry not only provides locals with jobs but also ensures the government has funding for the repair and maintenance of these historical attractions, which can be extremely expensive.
2.2 保护老建筑的弊端[the_ad id=”868″]
解释（A-B )—些结构可能是几十年甚至一个世纪前建造的，因此它们不符合安全标准，而且大 部分可能由于不适合实际使用而被废弃。
解释（B-C )翻修它们是昂贵的，或者不需要去翻修，因为它们在历史上或者文化上不认为是重 要的。利用公共资金进行翻修毫无意义。
deserve preservation efforts 值得保护 a waste of public money 浪费公共资金 run-down buildings 要 倒塌的房子 meet the safety standards 符合安全标准 practical use 实际用处 in extreme weather conditions在极端天气条件下historically or cultural important历史上或者文化上很重要makes littlesense几乎没有意义
However, some old buildings do not deserve preservation efforts and it is a waste of public money to conserve these run-down buildings. Some structures were possibly built decades or even one century ago, so they do not meet the safety standards and most of them are possibly deserted for not being suitable for practical use. They are likely to collapse in extreme weather conditions such as typhoon and snowstorm. It is costly to renovate them or unnecessary to do so as they are not considered to be historically or cultural important. It makes little sense to use public money for renovation efforts.
解释（B-C )如果这些建筑没有被拆毁，城市中心就不能用现代化的摩天大楼来取代它们，用于 住宅或商业用途。
- occupy valuable land of inner city areas 占领城市内部的宝贵土地
- hinder the development of a city阻碍了城市的发展
- for residential or commercial use 住宅或者经济使用
- urban expansion城市扩张
- be privately owned 私人所有
- high-rise apartment blocks 高层建筑
- business complexes 商业综合体
Another problem of protecting old buildings is that these buildings can occupy valuable land of inner city areas and hinder the development of a city. It is difficult for the city council to redevelop these areas, if properties are privately owned. If these buildings are not torn down, the urban centre cannot replace them with modern skyscrapers for residential or commercial use. Without business complexes and high-rise apartment blocks, a city cannot attract investors, entrepreneurs and professionals easily. It does not have manpower and capital required for urban expansion.
3.1 住房紧缺导致的问题[the_ad id=”868″]
解释（B-C )与住房相关的成本会占用每月的预算，并降低人们可支配的收入，以应付诸如购买 家庭用品等其他支出。他们可能生活在压力之下
- leading to a higher housing price 导致房价上涨
- a drop in the standard of living 生活水平下降
- live in rental accommodation 居住在租房
- pay higher rent 支付更高的租金
- housing-related costs 与住房相 关的成本
- monthly budget每月的预算
- disposable income可支配收入
- handle other expenses处理 其他费用
- buy house hold goods购买家庭用品
The housing shortage can lead to a higher housing price but a drop in the standard of living. Homebuyers have to pay more for the down payment as well as the mortgage, while people who live in rental accommodation have to pay higher rent. The housing-related costs can bite into the monthly budget and reduce the disposable income available for people to handle other expenses, such as buying household goods. They may live under pressure.
解释（A-B )居住在卫生、通风和隔热条件差的建筑物中的人容易感染流感、呼吸道疾病和传染 病
- The shortage of high-quality housing 住房的短缺
- the general public 大众
- a public health issue 公共卫 生问题
- increase the medical cost 增加医疗成本
- have poor sanitation, ventilation and insulation 卫 生，通风，隔音效果差
- can be vulnerable to flus, respiratory diseases and infectious diseases 容易感 染流感，呼吸道疾病和其他传染病
- high stress levels高血压
- lack of privacy缺乏隐私
- exposure to noise暴露于噪音之中
- pose a strain on the medical system对医疗系统造成压力
The shortage of high-quality housing for the general public can be a public health issue and increase the medical cost. People living in buildings which have poor sanitation, ventilation and insulation can be vulnerable to flus, respiratory diseases and infectious diseases. Living in cramped conditions can lead to high stress levels as people face problems such as the lack of privacy and exposure to noise. All these problems can pose a strain on the medical system.
- housing supply crisis 住房供给危机
- threaten social stability 威胁社会稳定
- increase the disparity between rich and poor 增加贫富差距
- use a large proportion of their earnings 用收入的一大部分
- pay the mortgage or rent 支付抵押贷款或租金
- well-off families 富裕家庭
- have multiple properties 拥有 多种财产
- live comfortably 过上舒适的生活
- renting out some of their houses 出租他们的一些房子
- anti-social behaviour 导致反社会行为
- the upper class 上层阶级 feel resentful 感到愤慨
The housing supply crisis in the long term can threaten social stability as it can increase the disparity between rich and poor. While low income people have to use a large proportion of their earnings to pay the mortgage or rent, those well-off families have multiple properties and live comfortably by renting
out some of their houses. The economic divide can lead to an increase in anti-social behaviour and the crime against the upper class. People feel resentful as the government fails to address the problem.
3.2 解决房屋紧缺的方法[the_ad id=”868″]
解释（A-B )这可以通过拆除市中心地区的一些废弃建筑来实现，因此房地产公司可以在那里建 造一些住宅区。
解释（A-B )另一种方法是在城市边缘建立一些新的住房区，并建立交通系统，使人们能够轻松 地从家到中心办公室。
解释（A-B )在大城市附近设计一些卫星城也是可能的，因此那些买不起第一套房子的人可以住 在那里。
- increase the land supply 増加土地的供给
- tear down some dilipidated buildings 拆除一些破旧的建筑
- real estate companies 房地产公司
- build some housing blocks 建造住宅小区
- build transport links 建 立运输连接
- travel easily from home to the central office从家里到办公室很简单
One way to tackle the housing crisis is to increase the land supply to allow for more housing development projects. This can be achieved by tearing down some dilapidated buildings in inner city areas, so real estate companies can build some housing blocks there. Another method is to create some new housing areas on the edge of the city and build transport links allowing people to travel easily from home to the central office. It is also possible to design some satellite towns close to megacities, so people who have difficulty in affording the first home can live there.
earn sufficient income 赚足够的钱
get on the property ladder 买房
tax revenue 税收
housing industry 房地产业
construct residential buildings 建造住宅建筑
subsidised accommodation 补贴住宅
bear a hugecost负担大笔钱
State housing is also a solution especially for people who fail to earn sufficient income to get on the property ladder. The government can use part of tax revenue from the housing industry to construct residential buildings. Families eligible to join this programme can live in this kind of subsidised accommodation without bearing a huge cost.
解释（B-C ):如果超出限制，还可以对家庭拥有的额外房产征税。部分富裕家庭的资金可用于 资助公屋，这个公屋向穷人提供。
pass some laws 颁布法律
curb speculative investment 限制投机投资
housing industry 房屋产业
purchasing a large number of properties 购买大量的物业
well-off families 富裕的家人
impose property taxes 征收财产的税
finance council housing资助廉租房
The government can pass some laws to curb speculative investment in the housing industry. Laws can set a limit on the number of houses owned by a family and prevent wealthy households purchasing a large number of properties. Property taxes can also be imposed on extra properties possessed by families, if the limit is exceeded. Part of the money from those well-off families can be used to finance council housing, which can be provided by the disadvantaged.
4 雅思写作城市发展类观点论据：住院子和住公寓的区别[the_ad id=”870″]
4.1 住院子空间大，有后院等，可以有更多的活动，譬如说园艺和举行PARTY ,而公寓比较拥挤，居住条件不是很好
spacious, living conditions
Houses are normally more spacious. With backyards, owners can throw parties and plant their gardens. In contrast, flats are normally crowded and people have to accept cramped living conditions.
quiet subsurbs, city centre
Houses are normally in quiet suburbs, while apartment buildings are normally in the city centre, where noise is consistently a problem.
furnish, mortgage, young professionals/one-person households
The ownership of a house is expensive as owners have to furnish the home and pay mortgage. By comparison, living in flats is cost-effective and suitable for one-person households.
in the urban centre, access to amenities, travel to and from work
Blocks of flat are normally in the central area, and the access to amenities is an advantage. People can travel to and from work more easily.
5 雅思写作城市发展类观点论据：城市化[the_ad id=”870″]
5.1 生活在城市的弊端[the_ad id=”868″]
living in the city, life in city, gain higher salaries, afford car ownership, car-dependent
One drawback of living in the city is that urban life is not as convenient as they think and traffic congestion is a severe problem. People usually gain higher salaries in the city, so they are able to afford car ownership. Another reason why cities are car-dependent is that it may be troublesome for city dwellers to get around, as the city is extremely big. As more vehicles are on the road, it is not unusual for people to get stuck in traffic, especially during rush hour.
A-B ：城市中人口大，一些工作岗位的竞争人数较多B-C ：为了升职加薪要付出更多的努力：加 班出差培训，不断学习新技能解释（C的坏处）：容易生病
fierce competition, make more efforts, get a pay rise, gain a promotion, work overtime, fall ill
Life in cities can be extremely stressful due to the fierce competition in city. Cities are normally heavily populated, and there are many people competing for a single position. In order to get a pay rise or gain a promotion in the workplace, they have to work overtime, travel for business or train to gain new skills. Due to a relatively stressful lifestyle, they are very likely to fall ill.
have a sense of happiness, a huge demand for, have a sense of security, cover the rising rent, living expenses
People who live in cities may not have a sense of happiness since the cost of living is high. Population density means a huge demand for goods and services, which are increasingly expensive. Inhabitants of cities do not have a sense of security when they cannot buy their own home, as their income may not be able to cover the rising rent. Other living expenses also increase constantly, and the consequence is that they are not able to afford what they need in their lives, such as some electronic devices.
a sense of loneliness, urban population, lifelong friends, a strong relationship, do community activities, a sense of community, feel disconnected, material success
People living in cities are also likely to experience a sense of loneliness as they are not as close as those in countryside. The urban population is mobile and people know it is hard to make lifelong friends, so they are unwilling to initiate a strong relationship. Another reason is that cities are overcrowded and people hardly do outdoor or community activities. They do not have a sense of community, and some of them feel disconnected from other members of community. Finally, people live a busy life in the pursuit of material success and sacrifice their family life or social life.
环境：A生活在城市B污染严重C更容易生病 A-B ：交通废气排放造成的空气污染
A -B :垃圾很多，处理垃圾不当，污染泥土和水源
severe pollution, waste water, discharge fumes, car air pollution, water contamination, create waste, dispose of waste
Citizens are more susceptible to illness because of the severe pollution in the city. Emissions from transportation can cause air pollution, and the waste water and fumes discharged by factories can exacerbate the pollution of the urban environment. The soil and water contamination are also serious environmental problems as waste is created in huge amounts every day and most of it is not disposed of in environmentally responsible ways. Living in these conditions can increase the risk of contracting different diseases.
5.2 生活在城市的好处[the_ad id=”868″]
the economic prosperity, guarantees job opportunities
People can earn a relatively high income in cities as the economic prosperity guarantees job opportunities. Cities are normally densely populated, and numerous companies can make profits by providing services and products. A larger talent pool can attract investment, which is also a driver of economic growth. As cities are prosperous, people can earn more than they do in rural areas.
get more job opportunities, expand their social circle, make more friends, get better job opportunities
The advantage of moving to cities is that people can become successful easily since they can get more job opportunities. There are more big companies in the cities providing thousands of jobs in different industries for job applicants. Some of these jobs, such as those in information technology, may not be available in rural areas, where farming is normally the main sector of economy. Moreover, people living in cities can expand their social circle to make more friends, who can help them to get better job opportunities.
解释3 :医疗，治病，寿命延长解释4 :文娱生活丰富
enjoy the access to a great variety of facilities, gain a decent quality of life, develop and upgrade different services, highly efficient transport, vocational learning centres, earn a higher income and have a fulfilling career.
One benefit of living in cities is that people can enjoy the access to a great variety of facilities and gain a decent quality of life. The urban economy continues to expand and provide the government with sufficient money to develop and upgrade different services. For example, a highly efficient transport link can enhance the productivity of many people as they can get around easily. The availability of public schools, vocational learning centres and universities allows them to gain knowledge to earn a higher income and have a fulfilling career. Hospitals and other medical facilities help them recover from different medical conditions and live a healthy life. Finally, facilities such as pubs, libraries, gardens, art galleries and theme parks can ensure that people find enjoyment in diverse recreational activities.
5.3 如何解决城乡差异[the_ad id=”868″]
rural economy, close the gap between rich and poor, improve the standard of living
It‘s important to revive the rural economy and close the gap between rich and poor by reducing regional discrepancies. If people in small towns or rural areas improve the standard of living, they would not have the incentive to migrate to big cities.
cities develop, increase the expenditure on infrastructure
Cities can develop to meet the needs of a growing population and increase the expenditure on infrastructure.
6 雅思写作城市发展类观点论据：公园绿化[the_ad id=”870″]
6.1 公园绿化的好处[the_ad id=”868″]
absorb pollutants, provide oxygen, reduce air pollution, improve air quality, improve drainage, hold soil
The advantage of having parks and planting more trees is that they are a valuable asset to the environment. Plants and trees can absorb pollutants and provide oxygen, which can reduce air pollution and improve air quality. Additionally, trees and plants can improve drainage of a city and play an important role in fighting floods as they hold soil
do exercise, physical activities, fresh air, get close to nature, adopt a healthy lifestyle
Parks and places with more trees provide people good places to do exercise, which is beneficial for people’s health. People will choose parks for physical activities, such as jogging, taking a walk, because these places usually have a good environment. People can enjoy fresh air there and get close to nature. This can encourage them to adopt a healthy lifestyle. Otherwise, city dwellers probably will lead a sendatary lifestyle, just sitting in front of computers to play computer games after school or work.
communal space, provide shade, flowering plants, flea markets, a sense of community
Parks can be a hub of community activity. Communal space has dwindled as cities have more and more skyscrapers. Trees can provide shade for people in summer and many visitors also enjoy visiting parks with flowering plants. Open spaces are ideal locations for flea markets, outdoor concerts and art exhibitions, which can draw people and create a sense of community.
6.2 公园绿化的弊端：占用城市发展空间[the_ad id=”868″]
green spaces, occupy the space, business blocks, broad roads, achieve prosperity
Green spaces are sometimes regarded as an obstacle to the development of a city. Parks may occupy the space which can otherwise be used for high-rise business blocks or broader roads. Without the infrastructure necessary for industrial development, a city is not very likely to achieve prosperity.
7 雅思写作城市发展类观点论据：花卉绿植[the_ad id=”870″]
7.1 种植花卉绿植的好处[the_ad id=”868″]
a healthy hobby, modern entertainment
Growing flowers is a healthy hobby, compared with modern entertainment, such as surfing the web.
tend plants, a sense of responsibility
Tending plants can foster a sense of responsibility. Having a beautiful home garden can give keen gardeners a sense of fulfillment.
bear fruit, organic food
Some plants can bear fruit and provide organic food
lighten our mood
Waking up to the smell of flowers can lighten our mood in the morning.
serve as decorations
Flowers can serve as decorations and improve living conditions.
a symbol of love, express feelings
Flowers are used to express feelings and affection. Some flowers symbolize love or commitment.
Flowers also have cultural connotations and have links to some traditional virtues.
7.2 种植花卉绿植的弊端[the_ad id=”868″]
Growing plants requires investment as people need to spend money on fertilisers and tools.
feel frustrated, flowers wither
People may feel frustrated if flowers wither or plants do not mature appropriately.