- reach full potential 充分发挥潜力
- improve the standard of living 提高生活水平
- block distractions 干扰
- focus on priorities and objectives 注重优先的事业和目标
- boost their productivity 提高生产力
Being selfish may sometimes help people reach full potential and improve the standard of living as they focus on their own objectives. As they are driven self-interest, they may turn down any request of other people for help. This can block distractions and ensure that they can stay focused on priorities and objectives. For example, they may try to complete their own work as soon as possible, rather than give a helping hand to colleagues who are stuck in a problem. In this regard, selfishness can actually boost
their productivity and help them achieve more
解释（A-B )他们不愿意与他人分享荣耀，而是希望自己成为杰出的人，最后独享自己成就的所 得
解释（B-C )如果他们的工作有任何问题，他们不会求助于他人，而是选择自己去克服。因此， 他们往往是多才多艺，能够做很多事情
have the determination to succeed 有成功的决心
drive their personal ambitions and success 驱动他们 的个人抱负和成功
share glory with others与他人分享荣耀
Selfish people have the determination to succeed as they are driven my their personal ambitions and success. Instead of sharing glory with others, they desire to be outstanding and solely entitled to all the gains of accomplishing a feat. Self-centred people do not want to owe anybody a favour as it can free themselves of the obligation to return any favour. If there is any problem with their work, they would not turn to others for help but choose to overcome it themselves. Because of this, they tend to be versatile and capable of doing many things.
解释（A-B )：他们倾向于捍卫自己的观点，坚持自己选择做的任何事情，即使这可能与一些传统 和其他人的观点相冲突
解释（A-B )：由于他们对他人的感受或反对不太敏感，他们有时会不择手段地把自己的想法付诸 实践
- show their own opinions and ideas 分享他们的观点和想法
- promote social progress 促进进步
- defend their views 为他们的观点辩护
- in conflict with与..发生冲突
- be less sensitive to不那么敏感
- put their ideas in to practice 把想法付出实践
- make a positive difference to the world 给世界带来积极 的变化
Selfishness also means that people are willing to show their own opinions and ideas, which can sometimes promote social progress. They tend to defend their views and persist with whatever they choose to do, even though it may be in conflict with some traditions and the opinions of others. As they are less sensitive to the feelings or objection of others, they sometimes strive against all odds to put their ideas into practice. Their unusual ideas may sometimes turn out be innovations which can make a positive difference to the world.
解释（A-B )：首先，公司不太可能与竞争对手分享其专有技术、知识产权和商业秘密。这些资源 让企业比竞争对手厉害，这就是消费者愿意为其产品或服务付费的原因
解释（A-B) ：家公司可能会选择保留大部分（如果不是全部）利润，因为它需要资金来支持研 究和发展，奖励勤奋的员工和増加销售。如果将利润用于慈善事业或其他目的，它将无法维持市 场份额
- in the business world 在商业世界
- share its know-how, intellectual properties and busniess secrets with its competitors跟对手分享知识产权和商业机密
- maintain its market share保持市场份额
- distinguish a business from its rivals 区分企业与竞争对手
Being selfish is possibly a necessary evil in the business world, as it can make a company more competitive. First of all, a company is not very likely to share its know-how, intellectual properties and business secrets with its competitors. These kinds of resources distinguish a business from its rivals and that is why consumers are willing to pay for its products or services. Second, a company may choose to keep most, if not all, of its profit, as it needs capital to support research and development, reward hardworking staff and grow sales. It would not be able to maintain its market share if it used its profit for charities or other purposes.
- develop or maintain a good relationship with others 提升或保持与别人的好的关系
- hurt their careers 伤害来他们的职业
- focus their minds on their own tasks 关注在他们自己的事情
- need advice and assistance from others需要建议和来自他人的帮助
- tackle all problems解决所以的问题
- consume time and energy消耗时间和能量
- cooperate with others跟他人合作
- work in isolation孤立工作
Selfish people cannot develop or maintain a good relationship with others, and this can hurt their careers in the long term. They focus their minds on their own tasks, rather than support others, so they are not popular with colleagues. This can be problematic if they need advice and assistance from others. If they are determined to tackle all problems alone, it can consume time and energy. They will eventually realise that a team and cooperating with others can help them achieve far more than they do when working in isolation.
解释（A-B )—个利润驱动的公司可能操纵消费者使其收入最大化，而且它的一些做法是不道德 的
- a threat to the reputation of a business 对企业的声誉是损害
- social responsibility 社会责任
- manipulate consumers 操纵消费者
- maximise its revenue 最大限度地增加收入
- personal information 个人信息
- make no attempt to fulfil their duties 不试图履行他们的责任
- fulfil their duties to safety of employees and to the environmental protection of communities 履行对雇员的安全和保护社区环 境的义务
It is also a threat to the reputation of a business if it is concerned with its profitability, rather than social responsibility. A profit-driven company may manipulate consumers to maximise its revenue, and some of its practices are unethical. Some companies, for example, fail to look after personal information of their customers with due care, and some of them even profit from selling such data. Additionally, some companies make no attempt to fulfil their duties to safety of employees and to the environmental protection of communities. It would be difficult to build its reputation once any of its malpractices is exposed.
解释（A-B ):他们比较贪婪，不喜欢分享财富，没有很多朋友 解释（B-C ):不能在社会生活中获得快乐
解释（A-B ):不喜欢慈善工作，将钱用于慈善用途解释（B-C ):不能够从别人的赞美中获得成就感
Selfish people may not experience the same level of satisfaction with their lives as those unselfish people. Self-centred people are greedy and unwilling to share their wealth and resources of others, so they do not have a large circle of friends. For this reason, they are unlikely to gain a sense of happiness by spending quality time with friends and celebrating some special moments together. Meanwhile, selfish people are not interested in charity work and donating money for worthy causes. They are not able to gain a sense of pride and achievement by receiving praises from other members of society who recognise their contribution.
greet, apologise, express gratitude, interrupt others, communication skills
People should learn how to greet others politely, apologise whenever necessary, and express gratitude. They should learn communication skills and avoid blunders, such as interrupting others when other people speak.
就餐礼仪，包括如何敬酒，如何分菜等 table manners, make a toast, distribute dishes
People should be conscious of table manners, such as polite ways to make a toast and the conventions in distributing dishes.
give up your seat, make noise, drop litter, wait in line, disturb others
There are social norms in public places, such as giving up your seat to the elderly on public transport,
trying not to make noise, wait in line and use electronic devices without disturbing others. Spitting and
dropping litter are examples of impolite and anti-social behaviour.
rules of etiquette
There are rules of etiquette people need to follow in different professions. 穿衣习惯，正式场合穿着正式，学校要穿校月服 dress code, dress formally, wear uniforms
People can show respect to a company, a ceremony or an event by following the dress code. They need to dress formally on some occasions. Students are expected to wear uniforms at school.
shake hands, exchange business cards, in polite ways
Being polite in work contexts includes shaking hands in meetings, exchanging business cards and communicating with others in polite ways.
prepare gifts, a gesture of friendship
We prepare gifts to show gratitude or as a gesture of friendship.
moral principles, rules of behaviour, exam performance, behavioural problems
Schools hardly teach children moral principles and rules of behaviour. Teachers focus on exam performance, rather than behavioural problems.
technological advances, less interested in social life, self-centred, interaction with others
Technological advances have made people anti-social. They are less interested in social life as screen time increases. Self-centred people ignore their interaction with others.
spoil children, maintain strong discipline, social norms
Parents spoil children and hardly discipline misbehaved children. Selfish children do not pay attention to social norms and the feelings of others.
televised violence, poor behaviour
Exposure to televised violence is a big problem. People tend to copy poor behaviour they see on TV.
income disparity, social division, disadvantaged people, resentment against
Poverty and income disparity have led to social division. Disadvantaged people have resentment against the upper class. They are hostile towards others, rather than friendly.
show patience, gain advantages, in polite ways
In a competitive world, people hardly show patience. They want to show their opinions and talents in order to gain advantages. They do not have patience to communicate in polite ways and follow social rules.
self-expression, show individuality, enjoy more freedom
People today pay attention to self-expression. They want to show individuality and enjoy more freedom, so the code of conduct is sometimes too complex and unnecessary to them.
considerate of others, build a network of contacts
Polite people are considerate of others. This can help them build a network of contacts easily.
educational level/academic background, social standing/economic-social status, make a good
impression, career advancement
The ways people talk to others can show their educational level and social standing. Communicating in a friendly way can make a good impression on others and contribute to career advancement.
conform to social norms, reduce interference with…concentrate on work and studies
Everybody can concentrate on work and studies if they all conform to social norms and do not do anything that disturbs others.
resolve/ settle conflicts, handle problems, live a happy life.
Polite people are more likely to live a happy life because they can resolve/ settle conflicts easily by engaging in polite conversations with others, and find common ground to handle problems.
hinder career advancement, express their ideas, inhibit innovation
People may not express their ideas clearly if they are afraid that their statements hurt others. This can hinder career advancement and inhibit innovation.
express feelings, enjoy freedom
People who are less conscious of social rules are inclined to express feelings freely and enjoy freedom to live their lives as they please. This is beneficial to their health.
Preserve traditions, exchange gifts, wear formal dress, speak in a subtle way
Preserving traditions such as exchanging gifts, wearing formal dress and speaking in a subtle way can be costly and time-consuming. It can affect the efficiency we need in the modern world.
Social roles, value equality
Some traditions emphasise and reinforce the roles of people in society, and do not show the value of equality.
hide feelings, express views openly
You may sometimes hide feelings and choose not to express your views openly, so people may find it difficult to understand your intention.
解释（A-B )年轻人崇拜名人，希望能像那些高调人物一样成功和受人尊敬。这就是为什么年轻 一代喜欢读名人如何取得成功的故事
- role models 道德模范
- developing good character and qualities 养成良好品质和品格
- high-profile figures 名人
- achieve success 取得成功
- improve skills and fitness 提高技能和身体素质
- promote the idea促进一种观念
- be essential to one’s achievement 取得成就必不可少的
- form these qualities 形成 这些品质
Celebrities are role models of their fans and followers, teaching the younger generation about the importance of developing good character and qualities. Young people admire celebrities and wish to be as successful and respectable as those high-profile figures. This is why younger generations love reading stories about how celebrities achieve success. For example, sport stars apply themselves to improving skills and fitness for many years before they can win medals in sports events. This can promote the idea that hardwork and persistance are qualities essential to one’s achievement, and young people will try to form these qualities if they desire to succeed.
解释（A-B )：他们的歌迷们愿意买票观看著名无神论者的比赛、电影明星的电影和著名音乐家的 现场音乐会
解释（A-B )：也有一些公司通过销售纪念品来赚取利润，例如印有名人名字的T恤 衫和帽子，以及制作具有知名人物的电视节目
解释（B-C )：这些企业不仅通过纳税直接为经 济做出贡献，而且提供就业机会，这对经济发展也很重要
- create numerous business opportunities for companies 可以为不同行业的公司创造无数商机
- buy tickets买票
- renowned musicians著名音乐家
- earn profits赚取利润
- sell mementos销售纪念品
- produce TV shows制作电视节目
- provide employment提供就业机会
The economic value of celebrities can never be exaggerated as their high media exposure can create numerous business opportunities for companies in different industries. Their fans are willing to buy tickets to watch the games of famous athletes, films of movie stars and the live concerts of renowned musicians. There are also companies which earn profits by selling mementos, such as T-shirts and caps which have names of celebrities, and by producing TV shows featuring noteworthy figures. These businesses not only contribute directly to the economy by paying tax but also provide employment which is also important to economic progress.
- set bad examples树立坏榜样
- ardent fans狂热的粉丝
- have some bad habits有一些坏习惯
- use illegal substances and alcoholism 使用药物和酬酒
- The scandals of some TV personalities —些电视 名人的丑闻
- sex assaults and extramarital affairs 性侵犯和婚外恋
- distort their views 扭曲他们的看法
- copy such behaviour模仿这种行为
However, some celebrities can set bad examples for their ardent fans as they have some bad habits. Some people may earn a fortune overnight and use their money for some vices, such as using illegal substances and alcoholism. The scandals of some TV personalities, such as sex assaults and extramarital affairs, also make headlines from time to time. These bad habits might affect young people
adversely by distorting their views of what a successful people does. Some of these fans may copy such behaviour.
- derive pleasure from material possessions 关注物质财富带来的快乐
- show the extravagant lifestyles of celebrities展示了名人奢侈的生活方式
- be exposed to this kind of information接触到这种信息
- a waste of money 浪费钱 borrow money from banks 从银行借钱
- the negative effect on their financial
Celebrities might also influence their fans’ attitude towards shopping, as more people pay attention to the pleasure derived from material possessions. There are TV programmes, magazines and tabloids
showing the extravagant lifestyles of celebrities, and people who are exposed to this kind of
information may also spend money in buying luxuries, such as designer outfits, branded bags and pricy watches. This could be a waste of money for them if the products are not needed by people. Some
people may even borrow money from banks to support this lifestyle, despite the negative effect on their financial situation.
解释：（A-B) —些名人以他们的容貌、从家庭继承的财富和奢华的生活方式而出名。这可能传达出这样的 信息：成功取决于运气、外表和家庭背景，而不是取决于勤奋和良好的品格
- affect people’s perception 影响人们对成功的最佳途径的认知
- pay attention to professional development 不注意职业发展
- achieved fame 获得名气 inherit from 继承
- pay little attention to learning practical skills很少关注学习实际技能
The wealth and glamour of celebrities can sometimes affect people’s perception of the best route to success, and some people may not pay attention to professional development. Some famous people have achieved fame for their looks, the money they inherit from family, and for their luxurious lifestyle. This may convey the message that success is determined by luck, appearance and family background, rather than by industriousness and good character. People who accept this idea may pay little attention to learning practical skills for their career.