- pay more attention to 关注…
- up-to-date information 最新的消息
- get higher salaries 获得高薪
- have adecent quality of life 过着高质量的生活
Career-oriented people may gain more wealth. People who pay more attention to their careers will spend more time receiving training to gain up-to-date information about their jobs, and possibly in working to ensure they are good at doing their jobs. If they are capable of doing something their colleagues cannot achieve, they get higher salaries and have a decent quality of life.
- requires practice and repetition需要练习和重复
- manage time时间管理
- organisational skills组织能力
- computer literacy提高电脑知识
- digital technology数字科技能力
- Dedicated workers敬业的人
More attention on career rather than families enables people to spend more time on personal development. Skill development requires practice and repetition. They can manage time effectively, keep documents in order and improve other organisational skills as they are familiar with handling work. They can also acquire technical skills, such as computer literacy and using digital technology to complete work, if they attend relevant courses. Dedicated workers also communicate with their colleagues, supervisors and clients more frequently, their communication skills can be improved.
- relaise their dreams 实现梦想
- promote economic growth 促进经济进步
- deepen their understanding 加深理解
- spot the bottleneck发现瓶颈
- creative potential创意潜能
People who are driven by their career ambitions will strive to realise their dreams, most of which are novel ideas that can promote economic growth. As they devote enormous amounts of time to their work, they deepen their understanding of their professions and the industries they work in. They can spot the bottlenecks of the industry and consider some potential changes which can make a positive difference to their fields of work. Their creative potential can be fulfilled and their ideas, if materialised, drive economic growth.
- busy schedule 忙碌的行程
- accompany 陪伴
- expericence a sense of loneliness/isolation 感到孤独/疏 离
- relationship breakdowns 关系破坏
- perform poorly 表现不好
One drawback of spending less time with families is that it will damage family relationships. They have a busy schedule every day, leaving no time to accompany children and other family members to enjoy some leisure activities. They may experience a sense of isolation at home. The instances of relationship breakdowns increase, and children perform poorly at school as they do not receive support from parents in schoolwork. Elderly people struggle with the sense of loneliness as they hardly see their children
- attain career objectives 实现职业目标
- at the cost of health 以健康为代价
- unattainable obectives 难 获得的目标
- eating disorder饮食混乱
- sleep deprivation睡眠缺乏
- health problems健康问题
People may sometimes have to attain their career objectives at the cost of health since they are tired and stressed out. These ambitious people may set bold, and sometimes unattainable objectives, such as earning millions of dollars a year, and to achieve such ambitions, they work long hours. They are worried about the risk of failing to meet deadlines, and suffer from eating disorders, sleep deprivation and health problems caused by inactivity.
解释（A-B ):他们觉得组建家庭是个负担，或者对事业进 展是威胁，可能30岁以后生孩子
解释（B-C ):这意味着50岁以上的工作者会増多，劳动生 产率下降，导致经济缓慢増长。
- career ambition 职业抱负
- low birth rate 低出生率
- start a family 生孩子
People who are obsessed with their career ambitions may choose to have babies later in lives and the low birth rate can damage the economy as the working population is increasingly older. They may regard starting a family as a burden and a threat to career progression. They may not consider having a baby until they are in 30s. Their fertility, however, drops with age, and this means that the proportion of young workers relative to people aged 50 or older will increase. The productivity of the workforce may decline as well, and this can lead to an economic slowdown in the long run.
- pass the time 打发时间
- forms of entertainment 娱乐方式
- enjoy different leisure activities 享受不 同的休闲活动
- play computer games玩电脑游戏
- chat with friends和朋友聊天
- use mobile phones 用手机
- watch films online 看网上电影
- substitue for 替代
- conventional choices 传统的选择
- go to the cinema with friends 和朋友去影院
People today are less sociable since they can pass the time by using different forms of entertainment. Technology has led to changes in what people do for pleasure, and they can enjoy different leisure activities in isolation. For example, they can play computer games, chat with friends by using mobile phones and watch films online. All these activities substitute for those conventional choices, such as going to the cinema with friends and playing sport together, which involve interactions with others.
- meet new friends 见新朋友
- enable people to work independently 使人们独立工作
- perform tasks without using social networks 不用社交网络执行任务
- come across problems 遇到问题
- computer programmes 计算机程序
- mobile phone apps and tools 移动电话应用程序和工具
- attach importance to 重视
- attend networking events 参加社交活动
Another reason is that people do not consider it important to meet new friends. Technology enables people to work independently, and perform tasks without using social networks. Whenever they come across problems at work, they find answers online. There are also computer programmes, mobile phone apps and tools which empower them to deal with everything themselves. They do not attach importance to building a network of contacts by attending networking events, so they tend to be less socially active
- the fast pace of life生活步伐快
- survive the cut-throat competition在激烈的竞争中生存下来
- handle their workloads处理好他们的工作量
- meet the deadline在最后期限截止之前
- return home 回家
The fast pace of life also leads to a drop in the time for social life. People have to work hard to survive the cut-throat competition. It is not unusual for managers, engineers and office clerks to work overtime every day to handle their workloads and meet the deadline. The time for socialisation thus dwindles, as they return home tired.
- population expansion 人口扩张
- open spaces 开放空间
- go jogging 慢跑
- visit street market 参观街道集市
- watch outdoor musical shows 观看户外音乐剧
- community activities 社区活动
- housing development 房地产开发
- city dwellers 市民
- talk to other members of community 和其他的社区成 员交谈
Population expansion is another reason why people are less interested in mixing with their peers. Cities are overcrowded, and open spaces available for social activities are limited. In the past, people could go jogging in parks, visit street markets and watch outdoor musical shows in city squares, but now these community activities have disappeared as space is used for housing development. City dwellers do not have opportunities to talk to other members of community.
解释 (B-C )人脉网络使人们更容易获得更多的职业发展机会。
- be beneficial for 对有益
- professional life 职业生涯
- make more friends 交更多朋友
- gain more opportunities 获得工作机会
- career progression 职业发展
- better job opportunities 更好的工作机会
- run a successful business 经营生意很成功
- fund-raising event 筹款项目
- government officials 政府 官员
- successful business people 成功的商人
- benefit one’s career 有益于职业
Spending time on social life is beneficial for people’s professional life. It can help people make more friends, and a network of contacts makes it easier for people to gain more opportunities for career progression, such as better job opportunities and a good chance of running a successful business. For example, attending a fund-raising event may help people meet government officials and successful business people, who have resources and power to benefit one’s career.
解释（B-C )需要用礼貌的方式和别人交谈，倾听别人，选择正确的话题或改变话题以便在社交 场合受欢迎。
- learn and sharpen communication skills 学习和提升交流能力
- talk to others in polite ways 用礼貌的 方式和别人交谈
- listen to others倾听他人
- change subjects转换话题
- keep others interested使他人保持兴趣
- on social occasions在社交场合
Additionally, people are able to learn and sharpen communication skills when socialising with friends. They will gradually learn that they need to talk to others in polite ways, listen to others, pick the right topics, and change subjects if necessary to keep others interested, if they want to be popular on social occasions. These skills learnt in social life also will be used in their jobs.
- be of benefit to health 对健康有益
- feel relaxed感到放松
- lighten their moods缓解他们的情绪
- gain some encouragement and advice 获得一些鼓励和建议
- difficult situations 困难的环境
- outdoor activities户外活动
- reduce stress缓解压力
Having a rich social life is also of benefit to health as people feel relaxed when spending time with friends. Talking to friends can lighten their moods as they may gain some encouragement and advice from those who have more experience in handling some difficult situations. On top of this, socialisation involves outdoor activities, from hiking, travelling to jogging together, which can reduce stress.
- a waste of time 浪费时间
- hang out with friends 和朋友出去玩
- go to the pub 去酒吧
- attend parties参加聚会
- play video games打电脑游戏
- consume valuable time 浪费宝贵的时间
- will be harmful for 不利于
- professional development 职业发展
But too much time in social life could be a waste of time for people. People who spend more time in hanging out with friends may have less time in working and studying. Going to the pub, attending parties and playing video games together can consume valuable time, which can otherwise be used for learning useful skills related to jobs. This will be harmful for his professional development in the future.
解释（B-C ):负面的同伴压力会迫使人们遵循一些错误的行为，会对一个人的健康产生破坏性 影响。举例：抽烟，酗酒，吸毒，疯狂购物
- form some negative habits 形成不好的习惯
- mix with friends 和朋友混在一起
- have good character 具有良好品格
- negative peer pressure 不好的同伴压力
- have a damaging effect on 有不好的影响
- compulsive shopping 强制消费
- follow some wrong behavioural norms 遵循一些错误的行为准则
- binge drinking 酬酒
- taking drugs 吸毒
People may even form some negative habits if they mix with friends who do not have good character. Negative peer pressure can have a damaging effect on one’s well-being, if people are pressured to follow some wrong behavioural norms, such as smoking, binge drinking, taking drugs and compulsive shopping.
- promote working efficiency 提升工作效率
- complete a task 完成任务
- be responsible for 为 负责
- improve productivity 提高生产率
- earn more profits 获取更多利润
- better solutions to the problem 解决问题的更好方法
Working in a team helps to promote working efficiency. People have experience, knowledge and expertise in different tasks, so they can complete a task faster if they are responsible for part of teamwork at which they are good. Additionally, the team can brainstorm together, and find better solutions to the problem. In this way, productivity can be improved and the company is able to earn more profits.
解释（A-B ):团队中有很多优秀的人，团队的其他成员可以受到鼓舞，学习他们的工作方式和 培养同样的工作素质。
- upgrade skills 提升技能
- professional development 职业发展
- well-disciplined 良好的自制力
- behave in the same manner 以同样的方式行事
- develop the same qualities 培养同样的品质
- role models榜样
Working in a strong group can also push people to upgrade skills for professional development. The team may have some excellent members who are well-disciplined, ambitious and highly productive, so the rest of the team can be inspired to behave in the same manner and develop the same qualities. People who work alone without role models may not feel the need to improve their own skills.
- lower efficiency 降低效率
- hold different ideas 有不同观点
- breakout 爆发
- slow the progress 放慢 进度
- are not capable of 没有能力
- have organisational skills 有组织能力
- perform their duties 履行 义务
However, teamwork can also lower efficiency in some cases. Different people will hold different ideas about how to complete work, and arguments will break out, which can slow the progress of the whole team. Besides, in one team, some team members are not capable of contributing to the team, or they do not have organisational skills to perform their duties. The poor performance of some people can definitely make the whole team less productive.
- achieve their objectives 获得目标
- take greater responsibility and assume more tasks 承担更多责任， 完成更多任务
- internal rewards 内在奖励
- personal developments 个人发展
- take advantage of 利 用
- lose the motivation 失去动力
- be dedicated to work 投入于工作
Another danger of working in a team is that people tend to rely on others, instead of working hard to achieve their objectives. Some members of team may be willing to take greater responsibility and assume more tasks, possibly because they want the team to succeed or because they are driven by internal rewards such as personal developments. Some other people, by contrast, tend to take advantage of hardworking teammates, so they lose the motivation to be dedicated to work.
解释：生活成本与日俱増，商品越来越消费不起。而高收入，不仅能支付生活基本开支，如水电 账单、房贷、孩子学费等，还能用来购买保险和储备养老；而且，收入高，人们还可以度假、买 奢侈品或花钱买高科技设备，生活质量得以提升。
give priority to sth.,search for a job, cover basic needs, improve the quality of life, high living costs, afford expenses, house mortgage, buy insurance, prepare for retirement, thanks to, high-paying jobs, take a vacation, afford luxuries, hi-tech gadgets
People give priority to income when searching for a job as income can cover basic needs and improve the quality of life. Living costs are higher than ever and goods are less affordable. With the high income, it is easy for people to afford expenses, such as water and electricity bills, house mortgage, children’s tuition and so on, and the rest can be used to buy insurance and prepare for retirement. Additionally, thanks to the high-paying jobs, people can take a vacation, afford luxuries and spend money on hi-tech gadgets, which can improve the standard of living.
pay rise, increase job satisfaction, create a sense of fulfilment,value to, feel valued be recognised by,advance one’s career,gain a sense of happiness
A pay rise can increase job satisfaction by creating a sense of fulfilment. It is logic to think that one’s income reveals his or her value to the profit-making of the employer. If staff are offered a higher salary, they will feel valued and understand that their talent, effort and contribution are recognised by the company. They will feel that they have advanced their career and gained a sense of happiness.
a sense of security, provide job-related benefits, business environment,be of concern to sb.,in the workplace, be interested in, work for big companies permanently, provide fringe benefits,paid holidays, medical insurance,housing allowances, pension scheme of the country,enjoy a comfortable retirement
A good job is also expected to give people a sense of security by providing job-related benefits. The business environment is constantly changing, and job security is of concern to many people in the workplace. Some of them are interested in working for big corporations permanently, and these companies normally provide fringe benefits such as paid holidays, medical insurance and even housing allowances. Employers also participate in the pension scheme of the country, so employees can enjoy a comfortable retirement at the end of their working lives.
healthy and supportive relationships, the key to a satisfying job,a sense of belonging to a strong group, lack confidence in sth.,gain support and advice from sb., perform duties well,express ideas about sth.,work practices, worry about retaliation or punishment, have a positive attitude towards,be satisfied with the job
Healthy and supportive relationships with colleagues and supervisors are also the key to a satisfying job as people find a sense of belonging to a strong group. People sometimes lack confidence in their ability to complete their work. If they gain support and advice constantly from coworkers or superiors, they will be able to perform their duties well. When they express their ideas about company policy or work practices, they do not need to worry about retaliation or punishment. They will have a positive attitude towards the future development of the company as well as have optimism about their career advancement, they will be satisfied with the job.
job training,perception of,be highly competitive,enter the workforce, sufficient skills and knowledge,sharpen skills, expand the knowledge base, get prepared for challenges,staff training system, attract people, intend to do sth.,a sense of progress,fierce competition,stay positive
Job training is another factor that determines employees’ perception of a job. The modern world is highly competitive, and countless job-seekers enter the workforce without sufficient skills and knowledge to handle demanding jobs. They are interested in the opportunities to sharpen skills and expand the knowledge base to get prepared for challenges in their careers. If companies have staff training systems, they can attract people who intend to have a successful career. They have a sense of progress and stay positive even when competition is fierce.
family-friendly policies, the key to sth.,job satisfaction,strike a balance between work and life,keep a good mood,feel guilty and unhappy,sacrifice sth. for, be involved in sth.,upbringing of children, be absent from,birthday parities,consider this need, offer flexibility, juggle different roles, inspire loyalty
Family-friendly policies are also the key to job satisfaction as employees can strike a balance between work and life and always keep a good mood. A considerable number of employees have children and they feel guilty and unhappy if they have to sacrifice their family life for their jobs. They want to be involved in the upbringing of children, rather than absent from some major events, such as birthday parties of their family. If companies consider this need and offer workers more flexibility in juggling different roles, it can inspire loyalty.
他们越来越关注是否能通过达成个人目标和完成梦想而过上有价值的生活。如果公司为他们提供 职位、资金或项目以发挥潜力，他们将受到激励，并有动力努力工作。这让他们在工作中有一种 深深的满足感。
be popular with sb.,allow sb. to do sth.,achieve ambitions,show talents, a large proportion of people,worry about the access to food, survival needs, be increasingly concerned about,lead rewarding lives,achieve personal targets, reach potential, be stimulated/motivated to do, a sense of contentment
A job can be popular with people if it allows them to achieve ambitions and show their talents. A large
proportion of young people grow up in a world where they do not worry about the access to food, or other survival needs. They are increasingly concerned about whether they can lead rewarding lives by achieving their personal targets and making their dreams come true. If companies offer them positions, capital or projects to reach potential, they will be stimulated and motivated to work hard. This can give them a deep sense of contentment in their jobs.
People also consider whether their jobs can contribute to society. They take pride in choosing a company to do something for worthy courses, rather than pay attention to financial rewards of the position. They are willing to see their hard work and effort make a positive difference to the quality of life of disadvantaged people and to the community. They can gain a sense of accomplishment when they receive compliments on something they do to change the world for better, regardless of income.
tough economic times, live in poverty
Unemployment and financial difficulties can put strain on people, especially in tough economic times.
technology is changing rapidly, increase new knowledge
Technology is changing rapidly. People are pressured to increase new knowledge and keep up with the modern world.
money-oriented, material possessions, work long hours
People are increasingly money-oriented and obsessed with material possessions. They tend to work long hours. This can put them under pressure.
Poor time management skills can be a cause of stress as well. People feel stressed out if they fail to complete work.
poor family relationships, weak social connections, experience a sense of loneliness
People experience a sense of loneliness due to poor family relationships and weak social connections. This can cause stress.
lack of physical activity, do not have a nutritionally balanced diet, prone to health problems, do not have a positive outlook on life
Some people are prone to health problems due to a lack of physical activity and a nutritionally balanced diet. This is a source of stress because they do not have a positive outlook on life.
解释：压力来自于无法有效地处理工作负荷：当人们不能有效地完成工作时，他们就会觉得紧张、 焦虑、沮丧和害怕。因此，人们应该掌握一些基本技能，如管理时间，制定待办事项清单，在曰 历上标明主要的约会和最后期限。这样，他们就能够按时完成所有任务，而不是等到最后一刻才 完成工作。
Self-management,arise from, the inability to do, handle workloads,complete work efficiently,feel anxious,feel stressed, feel frustrated, feel scared, acquire basic skills,make a to-do list,mark major appointments on ,leave work undone
Better self-management is definitely the key to stress management. Stress arises from the inability to handle workloads effectively: when people are not able to complete work efficiently, they will feel anxious, stressed, frustrated and scared. For this reason, people should acquire some basic skills, such as managing time, making a to-do list, marking major appointments and deadlines on the calendar, so they are capable of completing all tasks on time rather than leave work undone until the last minute.
解释：健康的人通常都能对慢性压力未雨绸缪。原因一，身体条件好的人一般把事情安排得井然 有序，例如：早起和分配时间在家做饭。这意味着他们也规划自己的工作，在最后期限之前可以 完成任务。另一个原因是：健康给人以应付压力所必需的能量、耐力和信心。很健康的人可以冷静应对压力，也鲜少会出现精神崩溃。
be well prepared to do sth.,handle chronic stress, enjoy satisfying physical condition, keep everything in order, get up early,allocate time to sth., plan one’s work, meet deadlines, energy, stamina and confidence,cope with stress, a high level of fitness, react to stress calmly, suffer from nervous breakdown
Healthy people are normally well prepared to handle chronic stress. The first reason is that people who enjoy satisfying physical condition keep everything in order, for example, getting up early and allocating time to home-cooking. This means that they also plan their work as well and have no problem in meeting deadlines. Another reason is that health gives energy, stamina and confidence which are required for coping with stress. With a high level of fitness, people react to stress calmly and hardly suffer from any nervous breakdown.
have a devastating effect on, be unlikely to do, deal with some problems, prevent sth. from doing,increase knowledge and upgrade skills,well-educated people, have considerable experience, solve thorny problems,how to approach a problem
Expertise also holds the key to stress management. Stress can have a devastating effect on people, when they feel that they are unlikely to deal with some problems. The only way to prevent this from happening is to increase knowledge and upgrade skills. Well-educated people who have considerable experience in solving thorny problems will stay calm in the face of stressful situations. They understand how to approach a problem and solve it.
解释：高期望值有时迫使人们追求一些不切实际或无法实现的目标。如果不能达到目标，他们会 产生一些消极情绪，沉溺于自我怀疑，这会雪上加霜。如此一来，即便是简单的任务看起来也很 有挑战性和很大的压力。所以，人们应该降低期望，设定更多可实现的目标。他们可以轻松地达 成期望。
attain their objectives, experience some negative emotions ,indulge in self-doubt, add the stress level,avoid this situation,lower one5s expectations,set more achievable targets,match sth. at ease
Adjusting expectations is also an integral part of dealing with stress. High expectations sometimes pressure people to pursue some unrealistic or unattainable goals. If they fail to attain their objectives, they will experience some negative emotions and indulge in self-doubt, which can add the stress level. In the future, even some easy tasks appear to be challenging and highly stressful. To avoid this situation, people should lower their expectations and set more achievable targets. They can match such expectations at ease.
maintain a basic standard of living, feed the family, live a comfortable life
The salary people earn can determine job satisfaction because with money, they can maintain a basic standard of living, feed the family and live a comfortable life.
People are satisfied with a job if they see the prospect of job promotions.
relaxing, comfortable, a good mood, positive attitude
Working conditions are important to people who are interested in a relaxing, comfortable office. They can maintain a good mood when working in a well-furnished workplace.
take a vacation, flexible work hours, wind down, enjoy the company of family, have a rich social life
People are happy to work for companies which allow for flexible work hours and offer paid holidays. They can thus have more opportunities to wind down, enjoy the company of family and have a rich social life.
work relationships, colleagues are supportive
Work relationships also affect people’s satisfaction with a job. They want to have supportive colleagues and a good atmosphere in the workplace.
gain skills and knowledge, progress one’s career, play a key role, perform more duties
In a good job, people can gain skills and knowledge to progress one’s career. They desire to play a key role in decision making at some point in the future and perform more duties.
develop one’s talents, realise one’s ambitions
People are happy with accepting a job in which they can develop talents and realise their ambitions.
fail to develop expertise
People who change jobs frequently fail to develop expertise because it requires commitment.
offer a high salary, climb the corporate ladder
Employers may have doubts about the loyalty of people who have a varied career. Companies are unwilling to offer a high salary. They may find it difficult to climb the corporate ladder.
reduce the need for commuting
Working remotely can reduce the need for commuting.
quit jobs, conceive a child, move to a new home, look after ageing members of family
Without travelling to work every day, people are less likely to quit jobs for personal reasons, such as
conceiving a child, moving to a new home and looking after ageing members of family.
offer savings in transportation, cut overheads
Teleworking offers savings in transportation. Companies can cut overheads if there are few people working in the office.
lack communication, cannot work collaboratively
Teleworkers lack communication with colleagues working in the central office, meaning that they cannot work collaboratively.
grow personally, brainstorming, come up with new ideas
People who work from home may miss out some opportunities to grow personally as they are less likely to brainstorm with fellow workers face to face and come up with new ideas.
interfere with performance in the workplace
Families can interfere with performance of people who work remotely as they are distracted from time to time.