1.1.1 A 快餐很流行，B节省时间，C提高效率
- convenience food 方便食品
- takeaway food 外卖
- cut time in food preparation 减少食物准备时间
- pace of life生活节奏
- sufficient time足够的时间
- devote more time to花更多时间在
The popularity of fast foods such as convenience food and takeaway food matches the needs of people
who intend to cut time in food preparation and complete more work every day. The pace of life has
accelerated, and the workplace is extremely busy. People do not have sufficient time every day to cook
a meal. Fast food or ordering a takeout meal is the best alternative to home-cooking, as people do not need to buy ingredients and decide what to eat every day. They can thus devote more time to their work or studies.
- a driver of economic growth —个经济增长的驱动因素
- frequent fast food restaurants 频繁去快餐 店
- catering businesses 餐饮业
- fast food chains 快餐连锁
- form strategic alliance with 形成战略合作
- food suppliers食品供应商
The fast food sector is also a driver of economic growth as it changes the ways people consume food. As more people frequent fast food restaurants, the revenue of these catering businesses will increase. Well-established fast food chains normally are major employers, hiring tens of thousands of people.
They also form strategic alliances with food suppliers and farmers. The economic importance of fast food businesses will continue to increase as people lose interest in cooking at home.
- fast food outlets 快餐分店
- well-established procedures and systems 良好的工序和系统
- carefully chosen suppliers精心挑选的供应商
Fast food is also safe to eat for consumers as most, if not all, of fast food outlets are managed with well-established procedures and systems. Ingredients are acquired from carefully chosen suppliers and transported to plants where food is processed in controlled conditions. Well-trained staff prepare food systematically to ensure food is well selected, cooked and preserved. All these procedures and practices are not likely to be implemented in households or stand-alone restaurants.
- the prevalence of the fast food 快餐的流行
- a positive trend —个积极的趋势
- detrimental to health 对健康有害
- nutrtional value营养价值
- home-cooked meals家里做的饭
However, the prevalence of the fast foods is not a positive trend, mainly because it is not good for people’s health. Hamburgers, pizzas and other fast food items are high in calorie, sugar and salt, which are responsible for health problems such as obesity and heart disease. Besides,some additives are normally used in preserving fast foods, and these chemicals are detrimental to health. Finally, fast food is normally pre-processed so its nutritional value is normally lower than home-cooked meals, which use fresh ingredients.
- erode traditional family values 损害传统家庭价值观
- no longer 不在
- tend to 往往
- have a quick meal 快速用餐
- miss out opportunities 错过机会
- communication occasions 淘通场合
Fast food can also erode traditional family values as people are no longer interested in cooking and eating family dinners. People tend to have a quick meal at a restaurant before going home, instead of finding enjoyment in preparing a meal for their family. They can miss out opportunities to communicate with family when washing ingredients, cooking a meal and enjoying food with their family. Without talking to children, for example, parents may not have any clue how well their children handle schoolwork and what matters concern them. These communication occasions would disappear if fast food replaced home-cooked meals.
The consumption of fast food is also an environmental woe. Consumers of fast food have the habit of ordering takeaways, which are normally packaged with plastic material. This can create staggering amounts of waste, which cannot be disposed of easily. In addition, the fast expansion of the fast food industry can drive the demand for poultry, and the growth of battery farming is phenominal. Chickens are raised in small cages and antibiotics are applied to prevent diseases, but the waste of these farms can contaminate the environment.
Shopping and catching up with fashion is a good way for people to get away from stresses of modern life. The pace of life in modern cities is very fast, so people do not have much time to travel and socialise with friends and colleagues. But shopping and chasing for fashion can enable people to take a break from work: they can go out with friends to have dinner and talk about fashion to unwind. Window shopping is also considered as a form of exercise, and takes people’s minds off work for a while.
catch up with peers, strong appetite for fashion, gain respect, recognition and praise
The tendency to catch up with peers is another factor contributing to the strong appetite for fashion. The modern world has become increasingly materialistic, and people attach importance to what you wear, rather than your qualities and merit. They find that they can gain respect, recognition and praise from others when they buy fashionable items. Meanwhile, they have more talking points with their friends if they own something stylish.
earn higher income, economic growth, pay attention to , show their taste and perception of beaty
Another reason is that they are now able to earn higher income to buy the latest trend. Economic growth has led to a shift/transition from functions of clothing to styles. Shoppers no longer pay attention to the quality of clothing and whether they can keep it long. They focus on whether outfits are visually attractive and in fashion. They want to show their taste and perception of beauty.
a sense of pride, fashion brands, show social status
Shopping and following fashion can give people a sense of pride. Advertisements, fashion shows and TV interviews of celebrities all show that rich people are all fans of fashion brands. As time goes on, people tend to accept that fashion can show social status. If they are able to afford it and shop frequently, they will feel they are highly successful.
promote economic development, increase the revenue, create more jobs
Shopping and following fashion can be beneficial to a country in economic terms. Consumer spending on designer clothes can increase the revenue of companies in this industry. To fill the growing demand for fashion, companies in the fashion industry have to hire more people, such as designers.This is a virtuous cycle: as more people are hired, the high level of consumer spending can be sustained and this is one driver of economic growth.
living standard, get into debt, household goods
However, the obsession with fashion and spending too much money on fashion could have a negative impact on the standard of living of people. Due to the changing fashion, consumers need to constantly spend a large amount of money on buying these goods. Fashion is also expensive and can cost people a lot of money. They may finally get into debt and spend less money in other expenses, such as furniture and household goods. They are not able to maintain a good standard of living.
do harm to the environment, keep up with the trend, throw-away culture
Another drawback of is that chasing fashion will do harm to the environment. People who tend to buy the latest trends may renew their wardrobe from time to time and throw away the cloth which they think is out of fashion. This throw- away culture will has its environmental cost as the clothing can take decades to degrade and the hues and fabrics of clothes can contaminate soil.
one-stop shopping, after-sales service
The main advantage of the supermarket is that it can provide one-stop shopping, allowing people to buy different products at a low cost. Well-managed supermarkets can also provide good after-sales services.
within walking distance
Small shops are normally within walking distance. It saves time.
手工的东西比较多，个性化的东西 hand-made products, custom-made products
Family-operated shops sell hand-made products and custom-made products that satisfy the needs of different buyers.
食品，蔬菜比较新鲜 fresh ingredients
People can also buy fresh ingredients in small fruit and vegetable shops.
小商店店主和客户交流，这本身是一种文化和生活方式 a way of life
It is a way of life for people to visit some famous local shops and interact with shop owners or attendants.
project a professional image
Uniforms can protect a professional image.
It can save money as uniforms are relatively cheap compared with fashion.
避免各种各样的衣服吸引人们的工作，或者导致人们攀比 avoid distractions
If a company has a strict dress code and people wear similar clothes, it can avoid distractions and people would not compare themselves with colleagues in terms of what they wear.
Some uniforms are designed for specific occupations, such as plumbers, showing the unique requirements of these jobs.
Uniforms do not show people’s individuality.
过分注重规则，抑制人的创造力 conform to rules, stifle innovation
A company that requires employees to wear uniforms may create a culture of conformity. This can stifle innovation.
Some people may feel uncomfortable when wearing uniforms, which are possibly not made of high quality material.
stylish outfits, a symbol of status
Stylish outfits are a symbol of status for they are normally expensive.
durable, out of vanity
Fashion may not be durable and people buy fashion out of vanity.
represent traditions, sense of beauty
Traditional costumes represent history and traditions, showing the sense of beauty of an ethnic minority
or a country.
wear formal clothes, for important occasions
Wearing formal clothes such as western suits can help people show respect for others on some important occasions.