persistent problem, run subsidiaries, increase tax revenue
International investment can help developing countries thrive. Poverty is a persistent problem in many developing countries, and multinational enterprises normally arrive with capital. They may invest in local firms and give these companies cash for development. Some multinational businesses may also run subsidiaries, which may contribute to the development of local communities by increasing tax revenue.
(A-B)跨国公司可能是世界各地不同行业的市场领导者，它们在经济上有能力在第三世界国家雇用成千 上万的工人，以满足世界各地对其产品的需求。这些工作对于那些本地企业很少有国际影响力的社区来说 非常重要
job opportunities, market leaders, financially capable, earn money
The large scale foreign investment provides a considerable number of job opportunities, which can improve the living standard of people of developing countries. Multinational enterprises may be market leaders of different industries around the world, and they are financially capable of hiring tens of
thousands of workers in third-world countries to satisfy the huge demand for their products worldwide. These jobs are important for communities where there are few local businesses having international presence. More locals in the developing countries can earn money to improve their living standard.
transfer of knowledge, talent pool, sophisticated machines, management skills, staff training, advanced economies
Foreign investment can also facilitate the transfer of knowledge and technology around the world. Developing countries do not have funding, the talent pool and systems for innovations, possibly as a result of persistent poverty, but Multinational enterprises normally arrive with technology, including
sophisticated machines, advanced management skills and state-of-the-art systems. When they enter a new market, they may provide locals with staff training and impart skills to workers of these countries. They also recruit managers locally, so talented people in these countries can acquire knowledge of modern management techniques as well. This can help developing countries catch up with advanced economies.
foreign firms, go bankrupt, set prices, withdraw investment
International investment may have a negative impact on the economic development of developing countries. Multinational companies have advantages over local competitors in terms of capital, managerial skills and technology. The arrival of some foreign firms in developing countries may cause the shutdown of some companies. These countries may rely on foreign firms as domestic companies go bankrupt. The dominance of large international businesses means that they can set prices arbitrarily. Even worse, if foreign companies withdraw investment from these countries, the local economy can collapse.
economic growth, financial aid/support/assistance/help/backing, technological support/transfer of
technology, investment in infrastructure, develop/grow the economy, donor countries, economic ties/ relations
Giving aid can benefit the economic development of both donor countries and recipient nations. Financial aid, technological support and investment in infrastructure can help underdeveloped countries
to grow the economy, as they can open factories to produce products and have ports, airports and roads
to transport goods to different places. The economic prosperity of these poor countries can eventually drive the economic growth of rich nations as well, if they have strong economic ties.
the spread of diseases. medical facilities, contain diseases, in a globalised world, medicine and medical aid, vaccines, medical staff, control/manage diseases/keep … in check, reduce deaths/death toll
The provision of aid is also beneficial to well-being of citizens of all countries involved, as it can prevent the spread of some diseases. Some countries are extremely poor and short of medical facilities
to contain some contagious diseases. Another problem is that in a globalised world, people can travel to different places easily, so one medical condition can affect the whole world easily. The supply of medicine and vaccines, and the work of medical staff of economically developed countries, can help manage some diseases and reduce the death toll.
incentive, lack transparency/ governance/ open political system, corrupt officials, misuse/embezzle
One disadvantage of delivering aid to impoverished countries is that it does not tackle poverty. These countries are over-reliant on/depend heavily on foreign aid and do not have any incentive to grow the economy. Without financial assistance, these countries may experience economic hardships. Meanwhile, they do not have an open political system and money provided by international charities
can be misused. Aid fails to reach people in need.
share know-how and relevant experience/ green technology/ international conferences/ exchange information/ preserve the environment/ environmentally friendly technology
Environmental issues can be tackled by international collaboration since countries can make a concerted effort to protect the environment, possibly by sharing knowledge and resources. As countries agree on stronger alliances, companies which specialise in the development of green technology can export their practices to different countries, and governments can hold international conferences to exchange information about how to preserve the environment. Meanwhile , they can enter some international agreements to ensure that all member states are committed to environmental protection efforts.
economic ties/ joint ventures/ local business partners/ foreign firms/ target market/remove trade barriers/enter countries/multinational companies/ competitive advantages/ profit-making capacity.
Strong economic ties between countries allows for higher levels of cooperation among companies , which can possibly boost the global economy. By establishing some joint ventures with local business partners, foreign firms can enter different markets easily because they can gain more information from the local people and have a better understanding of the target market. They can earn more revenue. In addition, removing trade barriers means that products and services can enter different countries to make more profits. Finally, These multinational companies have many competitive advantages in their products and services, and business partnerships can combine strengths of different companies and increase their profit-making capacity.
loopholes of laws, exploitation of resources, deal with pollution, international trade
Some environmental issues may arise from economic globalisation. Foreign companies may shift their manufacturing base to underdeveloped countries and take advantage of loopholes of local environmental laws to exploit natural resources and take no action to deal with pollution. International trade also increases the need for transportation of products across the world, which can cause a sharp increase in emissions.
- make the most materials 充分利用资源
- get familiar with 熟悉..the target language 目标语言
- online resources 网上资源
- language acquisition 语言习得
- attend foreign-language lessons 参加外语课程
- read articles阅读文章
- watch foreign-made films or TV shows看外国制作电影的或者电视节目
- talk to native speakers 和说母语的人聊天
- use online communication tools or e-learning platforms 运用网络交流工具或者网上学习平台
One way to learn a foreign language is to make the most of materials we can find. There are books about foreign languages, such as grammar rules and vocabulary. Reading these books can help learners get familiar with how to use the target language. Online resources are also essential to language
acquisition, as learners can attend foreign-language lessons, read articles written by foreign authors and
watch foreign-made films or TV shows. In the Internet age, people can also talk to native speakers by
using some online communication tools or e-learning platforms.
- interact with locals 和本地人交流
- have a deep understanding of 有更深的理解
- affect the conventions in communication and taboo subjects in conversations 影响交流的习俗和话题里面的禁
It is also important to use a foreign language in a good language environment. People can go to countries where the target language is spoken, and develop proficiency in the foreign language by integrating with locals. One benefit of taking this approach is that learners may find the differences between textbooks and the language usage in real life. They may have a deep understanding of how to use some words correctly and naturally. They also learn about the culture of the host country, which can affect the conventions in communication and taboo subjects in conversations.
- bear in mind 牢记于心
- expand their vocabulary 扩大词汇量
- in day-to-day communication 在每日的交流中
Whatever material people use, they should bear in mind that practice makes perfect. Language learning is an arduous process, and only people who devote time to learning it every day can eventually master it. For instance, it is not easy to expand their vocabulary without using the words they learn in day-to-day communication. They can practise either by talking to their peers or by themselves.
- promote international trade 促进国际贸易
- boost the world’s economy 促进世界经济
- be widely used被广泛使用
- pave way for business meetings and negotiations为商业会议和谈判铺路
- contractual relationships 合作关系
- explore business opportunities 探索商机
One benefit of having an international language is that it can promote international trade and boost the world’s economy. If a language is widely accepted and used by people from different countries, they can talk to each other more efficiently. This paves the way for business meetings and negotiations, which normally lead to deals and contractual relationships. People can work together to explore business opportunities regardless of nationality.
an internationally-recognised language 一个国际认可的语言
promotes technological progress 促进科技进步
share the same knowledge分享相同的知识
reach an agreement about…就…达成协议
speed up technological development 加快技术进步…
Having an internationally recognised language also promotes technological progress as scholars, engineers and scientists can collaborate to tackle some problems. They can exchange ideas easily with a single language and read reports or articles written in the same language, such as English. This can
ensure that they share the same knowledge, divide work efficiently, and reach an agreement about what to do to undertake a project. More international teams which consist of members from different countries can be formed for specific subjects or issues. This can speed up technological development, and scientists can achieve more than they do when working in isolation in their own countries.
threaten some minority languages 威胁小众语言
reduce cultural diversity 减少文化多样性
gain more opportunities to 获得更多的机会
loss of some cultures 失去一些文化
One risk of having a global language is that it can threaten some minority languages and reduce cultural diversity. The dominance of some international languages like English can encourage young people in some communities to give up their native language. They learn English to gain more opportunities to enter college and find work, as English is widely used in work contexts and academic settings. It is upsetting to think that some less spoken languages will disappear, so will some ways of life. We will see the loss of some cultures which can make the world interesting.
not limited by self-consciousness, pick up a language
Children are not limited by self-consciousness. They are more willing to practice. It is easier to pick up a language.
Primary school students do not have many courses to attend, so they can spend extra time learning a foreign language
reduce accent, learn with enthusiasm
The early exposure to a foreign language can help children to reduce accent. They can learn it with enthusiasm if they are familiar with this language.
a facility for language learning
Students who do not have a facility for language learning may experience some difficulties in acquiring a foreign language.
cognitive skills, interfere with the mother tongue language acquisition
If a student does not have sufficient cognitive skills, it will interfere with the mother tongue language acquisition.
- bilingual people 说双语的人
- a distinct advantage 明显的优势
- expand the market globally 扩大国际
- 市场 increase revenue 增加收入
Bilingual people are at a distinct advantage in today’s competitive world, and have the potential to earn higher income than those who speak one language only. The world is interconnected and few companies expect to operate without dealing with international business. Manufacturers, IT firms and service companies have to conduct business with foreign suppliers and clients, and employees who can speak two languages are in high demand. They can help employers expand the market globally and increase revenue.
Learning a foreign language can broaden one’s mind and improve decision-making abilities. Language acquisition involves reading of material about those countries where the target language is used, and sometimes, people may visit these countries in order to have a good command of this language. These experiences can expose learners to the information about the culture, values, beliefs, customs and lifestyles of other countries. They may perceive a problem from different angles and consider different possibilities, thereby making better decisions. For example, a business manager of an Asian country may invite input from employees if he or she learns English and understands the importance of listening to staff.
mental effort 精神努力 brainactivity 脑活动 make sense 讲得通
The effort to pick up a foreign language can also improve intelligence of young learners as they are exposed to different grammar rules and vocabulary from their native language’s. Brain activity can increase considerably if a child is required to remember new words of another language. It requires mental effort to make sense an unfamiliar language. These language learners may have better cognitive skills when they grow up. They can possess contrasting information more effectively.
- learning a foreign language 学一门外语
- add a burden 增加负担
- memorize new words 记忆新词
- expand their vocabulary 扩大词汇量
- career advancement 工作提升
- have a passion for 对..有兴趣
Learning a foreign language can sometimes add a burden on learners as it is an arduous task. This is particularly true for beginners, who have to memorize new words every day and read books about grammar and syntax. If they are not in a foreign language country, they have to work twice harder to expand their vocabulary. Unless people acquire it for career advancement or have a passion for it, it is difficult for them to persist.
geographic locations, import products from abroad/overseas, reduce the cost of living
Importing goods from abroad can raise people’s living standards. Some countries may specialise in the production of some products because they have some unique advantages such as climate, geographic locations, technology, traditions and labour. These products are possibly of better quality than those available in other nations, and sometimes more affordable. Therefore, importing products from
overseas can benefit domestic consumers by offering more options and possibly by reducing the cost of living. This can improve the quality of life.
in the long term/ have a bad effect on/ cheaper and more diversified commodities/ open their markets/remove trade barriers/ local markets/ reasonable prices/ national economy
Some countries import a lot of goods from other countries may have a bad effect on the economy. In order to provide people with cheaper and more diversified commodities, some countries open their markets and remove trade barriers, and the consequence is that the domestic market is dominated by imports. These countries will also become more dependent on other countries’ goods and will not develop the technology to produce such higher quality ones if they can easily import them with much more reasonable prices. These countries will be vulnerable to the price volatility of imports in the long term.
the utilization rate of fuel/ carbon emissions/ global climate change/ environmental damage/ long distance transportation
Transporting goods over long distances can have a negative impact on the environment. Nowadays, despite the fact that the utilization rate of fuel is greatly improved because of the development of science and technology, importing goods from other countries, whether by air or by shipping, still needs to consume a large amount of fuel. This will lead to an increase in carbon emissions, further exacerbating global climate change and causing environmental damage. If people only consume domestic goods, they can avoid the environmental problems caused by long distance transportation.
解释（C的拓展）：如果政府不能消灭这些入侵者并保护本地物种，最终可能会导致一些物种的灭绝。 biological crisis, exotic plants, grow wildly, farm animals, species loss
Importing food can also be a biological crisis. It may accidentally introduce some exotic plants, insects and fish, which can grow wildly in the host country. These species can pose a threat to local counterparts, when they compete for space and nutrients. Meanwhile, importing some farm animals from overseas may risk introducing new genes. It may eventually cause some species loss, if the government fails to eliminates these intruders and preserve local species.
imported food, pose health risks, preserve food, long-haul transportation, locally-sourced food
The consumption of imported food can pose health risks. To preserve food, especially perishables, over long-haul transportation, importers habitually use preservatives or other chemicals. These substances are, however, harmful to health, if not removed effectively. Eating locally-sourced food is possibly a healthier option because it uses less chemicals.
biofuel, fuel economy
The development of biofuel and the methods to achieve fuel economy can possibly mitigate the environmental problems attributable to air transport.
cut non-essential flights, make the most of capacity
Airlines should manage their services more efficiently, by cutting non-essential flights and making the most of capacity of every trip.
添加燃油税，抑制大家坐飞机 impose a fuel tax, curb air travel
Impose a fuel tax can be another approach, as higher air fairs can curb air travel.
attend a famous university
young people are more likely to attend a famous university if they choose to study abroad
pick up a foreign language, improve job prospects
Studying in a foreign country means that they can pick up a foreign language more easily, which can improve job prospects.
broaden horizons, take a broader perspective
Living in another country enables young people to broaden horizons and take a broader perspective in their lives.
become self-reliant, live separately from parents
Young people can become self-reliant, as they live separately from parents and handle everything independently.
enlarge the circle of friends, broaden career horizons
young people can enlarge the circle of friends overseas, and it can broaden career horizons.
adapt to an unfamiliar environment, feel homesick
International students may find it difficult to adapt to an unfamiliar environment, and many of them may feel homesick.
overcome language barriers, educational underachievement.
it is also difficult to overcome language barriers. Failing to understand lectures may lead to educational underachievement.
exposed to cultures 接触不同的文化
- inclusive/tolerating 包容的
- cultural awareness 文化意识
Countries which embrace multiculturalism are more inclusive as people are exposed to different cultures. They are more comfortable with the diversity in ways of life, value systems and social norms adopted and valued by different ethnic groups. Instead of seeing another culture as odd and unacceptable, people living in multicultural cities understand the origin as well as the value of every way of living. They are more prepared to embrace diversity and accept cultural differences.
- A multi-ethnic society 多民族的社会
- economic prosperity 经济繁荣
- different ethnic backgrounds 不同的民族背景
- set up a business locally在当地开办企业
A multi-ethnic society also has more opportunities for economic prosperity as people of different ethnic backgrounds normally come with money. They may set up a business locally or invest in a local
company as a way of earning a livelihood. Meanwhile, they have to purchase furniture and household
products as they settle locally. Their money is beneficial to economic growth.
people from diverse ethnic backgrounds 人们来自不同的民族背景
improve the standard of living 提高生活水平
host community 东道主社区
local inhabitants 当地的居民
multiechnic communities 多民族的社区
The arrival of people from diverse ethnic backgrounds can also improve the standard of living as these people bring skills and jobs valuable to the local economy. Some of them may have skills to fill gaps in the labour market, and these newcomers work hard to start a new life. Meanwhile, they may introduce some products unique to their own cultures to the host community, thereby offering local inhabitants more choices in lives. Food is a typical example, and in those multi-ethnic communities, people normally enjoy different cuisine.
解释（A-B) —个多文化社区也有一个有利于创新的环境，因为来自世界各地的人们可以贡献他们独特的 思維方式
解释（B-C) —个拥有多元化劳动力的公司更有能力开发创意，因为员工们聚集在一起分享想法，从不同 的角度分析问题举例：在开发新产品的过程中，来自不同文化背景的人可能会强调从包装到功能的不同方 面。这种头脑风暴过程可以给公司带来新的视角
- a multicultural community 多文化的社区
- an environment conducive to innovations 有利于文化创新
- distinct ways of thinking 不同的思维方式
- diverse workforce 多样的劳动力
- be more capable of 更 有能力
- develop creative ideas 发展创意
- brain storming process 头脑风暴过程
A multi-cultural community also has an environment conducive to innovations as people from different
parts of the world can contribute their distinct ways of thinking. A company with a diverse workforce is
more capable of developing creative ideas as employees come together to share ideas and analyse an issue from different perspectives. In the development of a new product, for instance, people from
different cultures may lay emphasis on different aspects, from package to functions. This brainstorming process can give the company new perspectives.
- have strong feelings about multiculturalism 对多兀文化有强烈的感情
- threaten the local culture 威胁当地的文化
- erode the sense of identity of native people侵蚀本地人的身份认同感
- change their religious beliefs 改变宗教信仰
- Muslism immigrant 穆斯林移民
- have a profound effect on 对..有深 远影响
- local religious life当地的宗教生活
People who have strong feelings about multiculturalism think that it could threaten the local culture and
erode the sense of identity of native people. The food, dresses, festivals and even religions are among
the interesting components of a culture, and if an ethnic group increases presence in a community, their culture is likely to influence locals. In some communities in the UK, for example, some local residents have changed their religious beliefs as the number of Muslim immigrants increases. There is growing concern that it will have a profound impact on local religious life.
解释（B-C) —些少数民族可能认为他们没有受到尊重，他们需要根据东道国的法律来放弃他们的一些传 统，例如宗教习俗
- the presence of multiple ethnic groups 多民族的存在
- increase the risk of racial conflicts 增加种族冲 突的风险
- be treated with respect 受到尊重
- forsake some of their traditions 放弃一些他们的传统
- integrate into the local culture 融入到当地的文化
- make an attempt 尝试
- ethnic differences 种族差 异
The presence of multiple ethnic groups can also increase the risk of racial conflicts as cultural differences are not overcome easily. Some ethnic minorities may think that they are not treated with respect and that they are required to forsake some of their traditions, such as religious practices, by the laws of the host community. In the meantime, inhabitants native to the community may complain that newcomers do not make an attempt to integrate into the local culture. If these ethnic differences are not settled, violence can erupt.
multinational companies, factories and subsidiaries, work practices, corporate culture
Multinational companies have factories and subsidiaries in different parts of the world. Their work practices and corporate culture can influence employees they hire locally.
western lifestyles, embrace values of the West
People who read magazines and watch films and TV programmes imported from the western world tend to copy western lifestyles and embrace values of the West.
exposed to a foreign culture, come into contact with
People can come into contact with the ways of life and values of other countries when travelling, studying or living overseas. They are exposed to a foreign culture and gradually, they assimilate into the local culture.
exposed to different cultures, broaden minds, tolerating
People who are exposed to different cultures will become more tolerating and keep an open mind to different ideas.
cultural diversity, a mundane world
Due to the exposure to exotic cultures, some customs may disappear. People may live in a mundane world if cultural diversity is compromised.
western suits, traditional costumes
People tend to wear western suits, rather than traditional costumes.
Hollywood movies, pop music, oil paintings, art forms, folk music
It is common to watch Hollywood movies, listen to pop music and appreciate oil paintings. People are less interested in traditional art forms and folk music.
skyscrapers, stone houses
Western architectural styles such as skyscrapers and stone houses are everywhere in the world.
饮食（快餐风靡，喜欢吃牛扒） fast food, eat steak
Eating fast food and western dishes such as steak has gained in popularity.
传统节日，庆典（庆祝圣诞节，情人节，甚至感恩节，而不是自己的传统节日） celebrate traditional festivals
Instead of celebrating traditional festivals, people are keen to celebrate Christmas, Valentine5s Day and even Thanksgiving.
achieve ambitions, family and social life, equality, social hierarchy
Young people of some developing countries spend time achieving ambitions, rather than family and
social life. They value equality and disapprove of social hierarchy
a foreign language, speak local dialects
People invest time and effort in picking up a foreign language.The number of people who can speak local dialects has dropped sharply.