- 解释2 :鼓励创业、减税，减少企业的运营成本，增加就业机会。
- 解释3 :加强基础设施建设，运输方便
enforce/formulate policies，rich/economically developed/prosperous，have competitive advantages set up a business，reduce/cut tax，operation/running cost，create jobs/ generate employment infrastructure investment
To make a country richer is possibly the main duty of the government. The head of the government is elected by the public to enforce policies to grow the economy and improve the standard of living of productivity of the workforce and increase the competitiveness of products. Another method is to cut tax to reduce the cost of running and encourage people to set up business，which can create jobs. Finally，it is also important to invest in infrastructure，so it is easier to transport goods to different places to make money.
law-making power，social unrest/havoc/chaos，law enforcement entities/agents，feel safe，a sense of well-being/happiness
The government is also responsible to maintain social order. It has the law-making power to regulate the behaviour of citizens and deter bad behaviour，to prevent social unrest caused by crime and offences. Meanwhile，the government manages military forces and police forces，as well as other law-enforcement agents，to ensure all laws are enacted for social stability. people will have a sense of security in an orderly society and this is important to life satisfaction.
create a fair society, wealth gap/disparity, build a happy society, upper class, redistribute wealth, a sense of happiness and safety
Creating a fair society is another thing the government should do as it is the key to social stability. The widening wealth gap is possibly the biggest challenge to building a happy society because the disadvantaged are hostile to the upper class. To achieve greater equality, the government can levy higher tax on the wealthy and can redistribute the wealth to support the people in need. Even people from deprived backgrounds can be educated to find good jobs, and if they have access to free or low-cost public services, such as medical care, they can set aside money easily for transforming their lives. In this way, the disadvantaged feel a sense of happiness and security while the rich will experience a sense of safety.
tax is collected from…
the interest of the public physical examination, health check-up, stay/keep healthy, cure diseases/recover from illnesses sharpen job skills/ability to find work convenient, enrich one’s life, live a colourful life
Another responsibility of the government is to improve the standard of living of the public, which can be achieved by investing in public services and welfare. Tax can be collected from the public and used for the interests of the masses. The investment in medical services allows people to stay healthy as they can do physical examinations regularly or receive medical treatment when they are ill. The spending on education can improve young people’s ability to find work as they have job skills and knowledge. The expenditure on public transport, parks and recreational facilities can bring convenience to the public, and they can live a colorful life.
It is also the responsibility of the government to protect the national environment and conserve ecological assets of a country. A well-protected environment has significant implications for the well-being of citizens as well as the sustainability of economic growth. Some projects can be launched to alleviate pollution and mitigate environmental problems, such as air pollution, water contamination and the environmental damage caused by waste, which can eliminate some diseases. If forest, lakes and oceans are well preserved, people can go sightseeing and enjoy a great variety of outdoor activities. Meanwhile, the reduction of pollution can ensure resources such as water and timber are available in abundance for businesses, and the economic development of a country can thus be sustained.
give information 提供信息
change their attitude 改变态度
take the right action 采取正确的行动
face the consequences 面对结果
make the right choice 做出正确的选择
gain access to information 获取信息
drop litter丟垃圾marine life海洋生物
dispose of waste处理废物
The government influences people’s behavior by giving information and changing their attitude. Some people do not know what is the right action and what consequences they face if they do not take the right action. They can be educated to make the right choice if they gain access to information at school and in the media. For example, they should understand the importance of recycling as much waste as possible to the environment, and the threat of dropping litter on beach to marine life, before learning how to dispose of waste in responsible ways.
- 解释1：在某些情况下，人们很难控制自己的行为，即使他们意识到自己行为的后果，他们也很难表现 出自我克制。
make laws 制定法律
enforce laws 执行法律
manage their behavior 管理自己的行为
show self-restraint 表现出自我克制
be detrimental to health 对健康有害
curb such behavior 逼制这种 行为
pass strict laws 通过严格的法律
impose a tax on tobacco and alcohol 对烟酒征税
Governments can regulate behavior by making and enforcing laws. It is difficult for people to manage their behavior in some cases, even though they realize the consequences of what they do. They have difficulty in showing self-restraint, such as stopping smoking and overdrinking, although it is common knowledge that these habits are detrimental to health. To curb such behavior, the government can pass strict laws, for example, imposing a tax on tobacco and alcohol.
- 举例1：政府可以为购买环保设备的公司提供一些财务优惠，为购买电动汽车等环保产品的消费者提供一些 现金奖励。
financial incentives 经济激励措施
reduce the economic cost 降低经济成本
financial concessions 减费优待
eco-friendly equipment 环保设备
cash rewards 现金奖励
purchase green products 购买 环保产品
break the old routine打破常规
financial rewards经济方面的奖 励
Governments can encourage good behavior by offering financial incentives. Changing behavior sometimes requires investment, and government support can reduce the economic cost of a shift to new behavior. For example, the government can provide some financial concessions for companies which buy eco-friendly equipment, and some cash rewards for consumers who purchase green products, such as electric cars. Meanwhile, sometimes breaking the old routine can be inconvenient and difficult so people deserve some financial rewards. For example, if the government wants people to travel by bus or train rather than by car, it makes sense to lower bus fares to promote such behavior change.
establish some new habits 养成新的习惯
research projects 研究项目
a massive cost 巨大花费
solar power 太阳能
government funding 政府资助
renewable energy 可再生能源
clean energy 清 洁能源
The investment in technology and science can also encourage people to establish some new habits. Technological innovations are not attainable unless the government is willing to pay for the research projects of scientists, which can last for decades and incur a massive cost. For example, it took years to make solar power financially viable for individuals and organizations to use, and government funding can ensure the running of those projects intended for the development of such renewable energy. Without technological change, the transition to clean energy would be impossible.
reshape people’s behavior 重塑人们的行为
leisure activities 休闲活动
generate interest 引起人们的兴趣
outdoor activities 户外活动
sports centers 体育中心
recreational facilities 娱乐设施
The government can also invest in facilities that can reshape people’s behavior. The physical environment has a direct impact on many aspects of our lives, such as leisure activities. In order to generate interest in outdoor activities, for instance, the government can build more parks, sports centers and recreational facilities in cities.
be driven by self-interest 被利益驱使
external restrictions 外部限制
repeat such behavior 重复这种行为
make money 赚钱
punish this kind of behavior 惩罚这种行为
One reason why government need to influence people’s behavior is that people are sometimes driven by self-interest. They do something unethical or even illegal as there is something they can gain from such behavior. In these instances, only external restrictions can stop them from repeating such behavior. For example, some advertisers make false claims about their products to make money, so the government should punish this kind of behavior.
regulate people’s behavior 规范人们的行为
follow some behavioral norms 遵循一些行为准则
government intervention 政府干预
boundaries of behavior 行为的界限
eat fast food 吃快餐
cook a meal themselves 自己做饭
promote healthy eating 提倡健康饮食
tax fast food 对快餐征税
The reason why the government needs to regulate people’s behavior is that some people are not self-disciplined enough. It is part of their nature to live their lives as they please, rather than follow some behavioral norms, and government intervention can tell them boundaries of behavior. For example, people like eating fast food, which is tasty and convenient, rather than cooking a meal themselves, which is time-consuming. In order to promote healthy eating, the government can tax fast food.
regulate citizens’ behavior 规范人们的行为
benefit the economy 有益于经济
prevent some unnecessary costs 避免不必要的开支
lead an inactive life 过着消极的生活
increase medical costs 增加医疗开支
expenditure on healthcare医疗保健支出
break these unhealthy habits破除这些不 健康的习惯
medical facilities 医疗设施
Regulating citizens’ behavior can benefit the economy as it can prevent some unnecessary costs. Bad habits can be problematic in economic terms. Examples include smoking, alcoholism and leading an inactive life, which can increase medical costs and lead to high levels of public expenditure on healthcare. If people break these unhealthy habits, they can enjoy an improvement of health condition and the government can cut the spending on hospitals and medical facilities.
maintain order of society 维持社会秩序
obey rules 遵守规则
follow behavioral norms 遵守行为夫见范
yell at others 对别人大吼大叫
smoke in public places在公共场合抽烟
sexual harassment 性骚扰
It is also easy to maintain order of society if people obey rules and follow behavioral norms. Laws and regulations are normally developed based on public perceptions of what is good and desirable behavior. Behaviors such as yelling at others, smoking in public places, road raging, sexual harassment and physical assaults are forbidden, and people will act as polite and respectful individuals. This is the key to social cohesion and harmony.
- pursue maximum freedom 追求最大程度的自由
- personality traits 性格特点
- sense of identity 认同感
- public transport公共交通
Restrictive laws and rules can however limit freedom. People are hardwired to pursue maximum freedom in their lives, and their habits and ways of living show their needs, preferences, personality traits as well as the sense of identity. If they are required to follow some rules, they have to give up something from which they derive pleasure, such as listening to music on public transport without wearing headphones.