举例：参加音乐会和在线播放音乐是一种放松活动，可以帮人们忘记紧张的工作 举例2 :可以听轻音乐，减少焦虑和帮助睡眠
- play musical instrument 弹乐器
- lighten one’s mood 缓和心情
- alleviate boredom 缓解无聊
- attend a concert参加音乐会
- stream music online在线播放音乐
- forget their stressful work 忘记压力大的工作
Listening to music and playing musical instruments can be beneficial for people’s health. Music can lighten one’s mood and alleviate boredom. Attending a concert or streaming music online is a leisure activity which can help them forget their stressful work or study for a while Listening to light music can reduce anxiety and enhance sleep quality.
show differences between cultures 展现文化的不同 music traditions 音乐传统 differ from region to region地区和地区之间不同folk songs民歌
Additionally, music shows differences between cultures, and encouraging people to play music can preserve the diversity of musical styles. Musical traditions differ from region to region, and there are substantial differences in musical instruments, rhythms, genres, beats and lyrics. While western music has gained in popularity throughout the world with pop music, rock music and blues heard everywhere, some traditional varieties of music are still alive in some parts of the world. In China, for example, some folk songs still have their fan base and there are musicians who attempt to keep these traditions alive.
- brain development 脑部发展
- expose young children to music 接触音乐
- motor skills 肢体或者手指 的活动能力
- audio information 音频信息
- music learners 音乐学习者
- information-processing 信息处理
- and analysis of external stimuli外部刺激信息的分析
Music is also believed to contribute to brain development, so it is advised to expose young children to music. It is argued that when a child learns how to play an instrument, such as the piano or violin, it can boost the activity of some parts of his or her brain, which control motor skills, hearing, storing audio information and memory. These music learners may perform better than average children in terms of information-processing and the analysis of external stimuli.
解释（A-B ):许多人选择听他们喜欢的音乐家的演唱会，看他们喜欢的音乐家的音乐节目解释（A-B ): 音乐人和乐队卖专辑和纪念品赚取巨大利润
- the music industry 音乐产业
- a driver of economic growth 促进经济发展
- go to the concert 去演唱会
- play an exorbitant amount for…为….付出高价
- watch the music shows 看音乐节目
- sell albums 卖专辑
- make a huge profit or mementos赚取巨额利润或者纪念品
- creative industry创意产业
- create numerous job 创造很多工作
- musical performance 音乐表演
- TV shows电视节目
- talented musicians才华横溢的音乐家
Moreover, the music industry can be a driver of economic growth. More people choose to go to the concert and pay an exorbitant amount for watching the music shows of their favourite musicians. Additionally, singers and bands sell albums to make a huge profit or mementos. For these reasons, the creative industry can create numerous jobs supporting musical performances and TV shows of talented musicians. In this sense, it can become a new engine of the economy.
解释（A-B ):在社区里面有很多户夕卜的演唱会可以免费参加，不同背景的音乐粉丝可以享受年轻的歌手的 表演
- increase community cohesion 提升社区凝聚力
- have some outdoor concerts 有一些户外演唱会
- gain a sense of community 有社区感
- music courses 音乐课
- form bands 建立乐队
- learn instruments 学 习乐器
Music can increase community cohesion by bringing people together for the same interest. The community may have some outdoor concerts that can be attended by free, and music fans from a variety of backgrounds can enjoy the performance of young singers together. Churches, charities, community centres and schools can run music courses or provide space for people to learn instruments and form bands. People can gain a sense of community by talking to those they never meet before in the same neighbourhood.
解释（A-B ):学习音乐会花费时间，没有音乐天赋的人可以花时间在提高工作相关的技能 解释（A-B ):当办公室其他的人在学习或者工作的时候播放音乐，音乐对人们来说是一种干扰。
participating in music-related activity 参加音乐相关的活动
improving work-related skills 提高工作相关的技能
be a distraction for sb 对某人来说是一种打扰
interfere with work影响工作
However, participating in music-related activity can consume valuable time and undermine people’s performance in the workplace or at school. Learning musical instruments takes time, and people who are not musically gifted can use time in improving work-related skills. Music can be a distraction for people, who may stream music while working in the office or studying in the classroom. It is not easy to enjoy a hit song without letting this activity interfere with work or studies.
- make a city more interesting and attractive 使一个城市有趣有吸引力
- attract tourists 吸引游客
- develop the local economy 发展当地经济
- be fancinated with 为着迷
- cities’artistic features 城市的艺术特色
- cultural attractions 文化景点
- tax revenue 税收
- employment opportunities 就业机会
Investment in art can make a city more interesting and attractive, which can attract tourists and develop the local economy. Visitors from other cities or countries are fascinated with cities’artistic features, and willing to visit some cultural attractions, such as art galleries and museums. The money they spend on the access to these sites as well as the amount they spend in local shops, restaurants and hotels, not only increases the tax revenue of the local governments, but also creates more employment opportunities.
解释1 : ( B-C )欣赏艺术品（如雕塑、绘画和壁画等）可以让人心情愉悦，减轻压力。
解释2 : ( B-C )生活在一个艺术产业繁荣的城市，人们更加注重工作和私人生活的平衡。
- enrich people’s cultural life 丰富人们的文化生活
- pay a visit to 参观
- cultural attractions 文化景点
- art industry 艺术产业
- balance between work and private life 平衡工作和私生活
The investment in art projects can lead to the proliferation of art galleries, which can enrich people’s cultural life. Appreciating artworks such as sculptures, paintings and murals can put people in a good mood, and paying a visit to cultural attractions can be a stress reducer by taking our minds off work. Living in a city where the art industry flourishes, people pay more attention to the balance between work and private life. This is beneficial to their emotional well-being.
解释A-B :如果一个城市有许多视觉上吸弓|人的艺术品（如雕塑、纪念碑），当地居民就会逐渐对这些艺术 品的构成有一个很好的概念。
解释B-C :他们将学习不同颜色、图案、图像和线条，以提高鉴赏力。这些知识和艺术技能可以让他们 在职场上受益。
- public art公共艺术
- visual literacy审美能力
- works of art艺术作品
- local residents当地居民
- develop a good idea of形成很好的想法，概念
- artistic skills艺术方面的技能
- design a website设 计一个网站
- create a memo创建一个备忘录
- devise a presentation设计一个演讲稿
The expenditure on public art can also improve the visual literacy of the public, which can be applied
to work. If a city has numerous visually attractive sculptures, monuments and works of art, local residents will gradually develop a good idea of what constitutes artistically beautiful items. They will learn the functions of different colours, patterns, images and lines in improving the visual appeal of a physical object. This kind of knowledge can benefit them in the workplace, when they harness their artistic skills to prepare reports, design a website, create a memo and devise a presentation.
背景：艺术代表着一个国家的文化和历史，投资于保护各种艺术形式，特别是民间艺术，使后人有可能记 住他们国家的艺术成就。如果没有国家的支持，手工艺、纺织产品和饰品的艺术技能在未来可能会消失， 因为这些行业在年轻人中已经不受欢迎。
- cultural diversity 文化多样性
- folk art 民间艺术
- artistic achievements艺术成就
- artistic skills艺术方面的技能
- make handicrafts制作手工艺品
- textile products纺织品
- die out消亡
- lose popularity 失去人气
- artistic traditions 艺术传统
- traditional skills 传统的技能
- sense of identity 认同感
The investment in art can also help preserve rich cultural diversity. Art represents culture and history of a country, and the investment in the preservation of various art forms, especially folk art, makes it possible for future generations to remember the artistic achievements of their country. Without the support from the state, the artistic skills in making handicrafts, textile products and accessories would possibly die out in the future, as these trades have lost popularity among young people. The loss of these artistic traditions may be a tragedy for a country, as these traditional skills are a connection to the sense of identity of some people and the diversity of art can keep a society interesting.
解释A-B :在很大程度上，艺术活动可以为不同地区、不同年龄、不同性别、不同种族的人们提供聚在一 起的机会。
- talking points交谈的话题
- a universal human language人类通用的语言
- art centres艺术中心
- local art lovers 当地艺术爰好者
- works of art 艺术作品
- parent-child activity 亲子活动
- gain an insight into 洞察
Art activities can bring people together and act as talking points. Art is an important form of expression and a universal human language. In general, art activities can provide opportunities for people of different regions, ages, genders and races to gather together, thus providing people with the opportunity o know each other better. For example, some art centres sometimes organise exhibitions that show artworks of local art lovers and attract members of community. They gather to appreciate the works of art, and exchange views in seminars and meetings. Making artworks together also makes an extraordinary parent-child activity, and parents can gain an insight into the thinking of children by artworks. This can benefit the bonding of members of family.
解释（B-C ):在艺术上的花费可以分配给其他行业。在人们难以维持基本生活水平的社区，他们会呼吁政府优先提供公共交通、医疗和教育。如果人们要花很多钱在这些服务上，他们的可 支配收入减少，消费力减少会影响经济的发展。
- spiritual needs 精神需求
- government budget 政府预算
- use up the money 花光钱
- public services 公共服务
- struggle with a basic standard of living难以维持基本的生活水准
- public transport公共交通
Although the governments’ investment in art can help better meet people’s spiritual needs, it can be costly and present obstacles to the development of a city. The government budget is limited, and the spending on art can use up the money which can otherwise be allocated to other industries and public services. In communities where people struggle with a basic standard of living, they would call on the state to prioritise the provision of public transport, healthcare and education. They would not support the funding for art, which is regarded as a luxury. The expenditure on education and medicla care can reduce disposable income, and lower consumer spending can undermine economic growth.
- repeats itself 自我重复
- historical events 历史事件
- timeless rules 永恒的规则
- draw upon the experience of 从…吸取经验
- avoid mistakes 避免犯错
Learning history enables us to draw upon the experiences of the past and helps us avoid mistakes. History always repeats itself, and there are some timeless rules we can follow to handle similar problems. For example, when we borrow money from banks to buy luxuries, we need to bear in mind the risk of overspending-one habit linked to the financial crisis in 2018. Likewise, when we are anxious about the lasting impact of an economic slowdown, economists may suggest that in history, every economic downturn is followed by a recovery and a boom. In other words, history can give us guidance when making important decisions and allay our fear.
背景：不同的人对历史事件的描述不同，体现了政见和价值观 解释（A-B ):人们会思考为什么会有这么一些不同 解释（B-C ):最后看信息会比较谨慎，有批判性
- critical thinking skills 批判性思维
- political opinions/views 政治观点
- information is reliable/trustworthy/credible 可靠的信息
- evaluate information critically 批判地去评估信息
- weigh up prosand cons of…权衡利弊
Learning history will help individuals improve their critical thinking skills. Historians have different accounts of historic events, showing differences in value systems, political opinions and attitudes. People who read history books and watch documentaries will be curious about sometimes contrasting views about the same historical figure. This is how they gradually realise history books do not invariably reflect facts, and in many cases, these books simply show the views of authors. They will become critical of the information they receive.
- cultural root 文化根源
- enhance a sense of cultural identity 提升文化认同感
The study of history can increase awareness of cultural roots and enhance a sense of cultural identity. A country’s culture is intertwined with its history. The development of a country in early stages determines the evolution of some traditions, such as cuisine, the main livelihoods, ways of dressing and crafts. For example, seafood remains an intergral part of the diet of families in some countries such as Japan, in large part due to the fact that fishing used to a primary source of income for these nations. Young people who have a good understanding of the historical development of their country will make a conscious effort to keep their traditions alive.
- significant events 有意义的事件
- detect/identify patterns 发现规律
- practical skills 实践技能
- a waste of time 浪费时间
Learning history can be a waste of time, since it may not have relevance to modern life. The world is changing constantly, and the rules and empirical knowledge learned from historical events are possibly not applicable in today’s world. For example, in the past, some unethical business practices could help some businesspeople make money, but today, due to strict business laws and the Internet technology, companies can attract criticisms online and face punishment for immoral or illegal behaviour.
解释：教科书有意加入一些历史事件，但是没有说其他的，为了影响读者对过去事件的看法解释：当描述 —个事件的时候，教科书有很多论断，但是没有很多的证据 解释（B-C )亥会有错误的看法
manipulate the public/readers 操控读者
form misconceptions/ have some misconceived ideas 形成错误的观念
read textbooks 阅读教科书show the thoughts of politicians 体现政客的主张
History textbooks may sometimes be used by the government to manipulate the public. Textbooks may deliberately include some historical events but simply ignore others in order to distort readers’ views of what happened in the past. When recollecting a significant event in history, history books make some claims which are not supported by strong evidence. Students who read these books may have some mistaken ideas about history.
解释（A-B ):看文物，古代的艺术品 解释（A-B ):提供各种娱乐，包括游戏等
enrich cultural lives 丰富文化生活 historically important items/objects 具有历史重要性的物件 works of art/creative works 艺术品 improve visual literacy 提高视觉素养
Keeping public museums operating can enrich cultural lives. People take pride in the achievements of ancestors when seeing objects, artworks and antiques in museums. Some museums have also sought to provide different forms of entertainment, such as movies and interactive games, which allow people to learn about history in engaging ways.
解释（A-B ) : 了解历史、文化、重大的历史事件 解释（B-C ):收门票，卖一些纪念品，其他行业发展
tourist attraction 旅游景点 cultural attraction 文化景点 historical attraction 历史景点
Museums are sometimes important tourist attractions that can generate revenue for local communities. They charge admission fees and have gift shops that sell souveniors to make money. Some museums are meanwhile landmarks of a city, which are famous for architectural styles and famous monuments. Without these cultural attractions, some cities would fail to attract visitors.
preserve cultural heritage 保存文化遗产 repair fragile items/objects 修复易碎物件 a connection to thepast与过去的联系
Investing in museums can help preserve cultural relics and protect heritage. Museums hire
professionals to repair and maintain fragile items. With government funding and donations made by
individual visitors, museums can amass collections, which are a vital connection to the past. Without organisations running for this purpose, historically significant items are possibly held by private collectors and cannot be preserved easily.
背景：不喜欢去博物馆，趣味不够，赚不了门票 背景：虚拟博物馆，可以网络上看 解释（A-B):请人去管理
- less entertaining 没有趣味
- admission fees/entry fees 门票
- virtual museums/digital museums 虚拟 博物馆
Running a museum costs a large amount of money and some people may argue that this kind of expenditure is unnecessary. Museums sometimes fail to attract visitors, as there are other more interesting attractions, such as amusement parks. In this case, museums cannot break even easily. Additionally, some people prefer to go to virtual museums, which are free and open 24 hours a day. This is particularly the case when VR technology has developed to a point where viewing an exhibit at home is basically the same as looking at it personally in a real museum. Finally, museums need to hire staff for management and professionals to repair and restore fragile works of art.
- poor management/not managed well 管理不善
- security measures, facilities 安保措施
The management of the museums is another issue, and objects of cultural interest can be damaged or stolen due to poor management. If the security of museums cannot be guaranteed, some valuable items will be stolen. The exhibition of some ancient objects should be handled with care, as these items can be damaged easily when exposed to strong wind and lighting. It is not easy to reach a balance between displaying these items and protecting them.