背景：学校的课本由专家编写，涉及客观世界的基本知识，解决人们的基本问题 举例：语言可以提高交流能力，更好去描述事情，更好和别人沟通举例：数学可以提高计算能力，怎么省钱，怎么对比价格，怎么平衡预算 举例：物理教你一些生活常识，电比交危险，等
real-life knowledge 生活常识
attend school 上学
education expert 教育专家
electric equipment 电器
electricity shocks 电击
People gain real-life knowledge by attending school and handle matters easily in their daily lives. School textbooks are prepared and edited by education experts who consider it necessary for children to learn both theories and practical skills. Language courses can improve their communication skills, including the ability to describe a subject or issue clearly. Maths can improve mathematical skills, such as budgeting, saving money, and comparing prices. Physics can teach students some basic knowledge about life, such as the importance of handling electric equipment with care to avoid electricity shocks.
study skills/techniques 学习技能
academic skills 学术技能
intellectual development 智力发展
collect/gather information 收集信息
information is useful/valid 信息有效
comprehend/grasp information 理解信息
Going to school can also improve one’s intellectual skills, which are required for decision making. They need to read textbooks, listen to instructions of teachers and do homework. All these activities can gradually help them develop competence in solving problems, such as gathering information, figuring out what information is useful and coming up with solutions.
obey laws, comply with laws, observe laws 遵守法律
maintain order 保持秩序
school rules 校规
unacceptable behavoir 难以容受的行为
Schools can also teach what behaviour is legal and ethically good, so it is easy to maintain order of society if people have access to education. School rules can help students understand the behaviour that is not acceptable, such as cheating and bullying. Teachers also teach children good manners during the lesson, when children talk to classmates, interrupt others and express their views. Schools have textbooks containing fables teaching children moral lessons, so children can have a good understanding of the qualities of a respectful person, such as integrity, loyalty and honesty.
解释（B-C ):处理问题更快，解决方法是准确的 解释（B-C ):做一些研究，有助于创新
well-educated people 受过良好教育的人们
specialised knowledge 专业知识
economic development/growth/progress/expansion 经济增长
conduct/do/carry out research 做研究
As more people receive an education, it can help grow the economy. Well-educated people can solve problems faster and complete work efficiently as they are familiar with all advanced practices and tools used in industry. They have better literacy skills so they can possess information and grasp new ideas quickly. A company with college-educated employees is more productive and competitive. As people with academic qualifications are knowledgeable, they are more capable of working out creative solutions whenever they spot problems. Innovations are also important to a country’s economic growth.
解释（A-B ):学校的一些课程，比如说体育课和艺术课程还有一些课外活动，可以发展孩子的爰好，让他 们能够放松和正确疏导压力。
解释（A-B ):还有，一些有很强学术背景的人都很爰看书，这就意味着他们可以通过看书来开阔思路，遇 到困难时也知道怎么解决。
manage emotions 管理情绪
extracurricular activities 课外活动
cope with stress 疏导压力
academic background 学术背景
avid reader 读书迷
confront challenges 面对挑战
Education can make people healthy, happy individuals as they learn how to manage emotions. Schools have courses such as PE and art and extracurricular activities that help children develop hobbies, which allow them to feel relaxed and cope with stress in healthy ways. In addition, people who have a strong academic background are avid readers, meaning that they can broaden their minds by reading books and understand the options available for them when they confront challenges. They would be optimistic when handling challenges.
解释（A-B ):学校里会有一些关于不同领域里的榜样的阅读材料，比如说著名的政治家、白手起家的亿万 富翁、运动明星和有名望的科学家。
解释（B-C ):许多年轻人会有动力去设立新的目标、实现他们的雄心壮志，而不是选择一个跟专业对口的 工作。
role models 榜样
renowned politicians 著名政治家
self-made billionaires 白手起家的亿万富翁
have the motivation to 有动力
achieve ambitions 实现雄心壮志
Education can also inspire people to achieve their full potential by letting them know different possibilities in lives. Schools and universities have some reading material that shows different role models in different fields, such as renowned politicians, self-made billionaires, sports stars and famous scientists. Many young people may have the motivation to set new goals in lives and achieve their ambitions, instead of pursuing a career related to the university subject they learn.
ways of life, financial situations, nourishing food
Parents also decide what children do every day, so the ways of life developed during childhood last into adulthood. The socio-economic status of parents can have a direct impact on whether children have a nutritionally balanced diet.
interact with children, improve intelligence
Even buying gifts for children, playing games and other activities or decisions can affect the brain development of children. The increase in brain activity can improve intelligence.
school rules, discipline children, obey rules, follow behavioural norms
Children are possibly more conscious of good manners nowadays. They have wider access to education, and schools may impart a code of conduct to them and teach them how to behave well. Meanwhile, the educational level of parents is possibly higher than before, meaning that children can be taught to communicate with others in polite ways at home. The government also has some campaigns to teach the public what is acceptable behaviour, such as showing respect to others in social life.
verbal abuse, ranting on the Internet, abusive language, socially competent, school bullying, physical abuse
It is argued that children today are rude and impolite. It is possibly attributed to the influence of TV programmes and games, which expose children to verbal abuse, and ranting on the Internet is so common that children think the use of abusive language is the norm. Parents are also responsible for this problem, as they spend less time socializing with others. Their children stay at home and are less sociable. They are not very socially competent. The drop in the standard of education is the third reason. School bullying has become widespread, and children who are exposed to physical or verbal abuse do not have a good idea how to be polite and respectful to others.
take one’s mind off, mental effort
Media can offer a type of escapism. TV programmes and games are normally interesting and stimulating. They can easily engage children’s attention and take their minds off studies for a while. Meanwhile, these activities do not require mental effort, so they are relatively relaxing.
a rich social life, lead a busy life, socialise with peers
Children are addicted to playing games and watching TV because they lack the company of parents and do not have a rich social life. Adults lead a busy life so they have little time to spend with children, such as reading books and playing sport. Meanwhile, as they are not able to watch their children, they choose to keep their children at home, instead of socialising with/mixing with peers.
indulge in playing games, a sense of achievement, progress to the next level
Children indulge in gaming because they can gain a sense of achievement. Games normally present rewards when they accomplish missions, beat other players and progress to the next level. They will be happy and thrilled. In contrast, studies are challenging and stressful, especially when children consider it difficult to live up to the expectations of parents.
exam factories, well-rounded education, extra-curricular activities
Children watch TV and play games because schools have become exam factories and do not pay attention to well-rounded education. Schools try to help every student pass college entrance exams in an effort/attempt to increase their competitiveness; therefore, they think extra-curricular activities are a waste of time. Meanwhile, these activities normally require resources and facilities, such as playgrounds and teachers who can teach different classes, so schools are unwilling to support these activities. Without any other way to spend free time/leisure time, children would have no choice but to watch TV or play games.
Parents have a key role to play in the physical development of children. If parents are conscious of healthy eating, their children will be less likely to eat fast food.
If parents spend less time watching TV and surfing the web, children will be more passionate about outdoor activities.
The high expectations of parents can, however, put children under enormous pressure.
short attention span, repetitive learning tasks, conventional methods, grab attention/generate interest
One reason why young people have a negative attitude towards education is that the teaching methods of teachers fail to engage students. Due to short attention span, children can feel bored if they are required to complete repetitive learning tasks. Schools do not pay attention to this problem, and they never consider the use of multimedia and electronic devices to present information in more engaging ways, because they see technology as a distraction rather than a powerful tool. Teachers are trained to teach every lesson in traditional ways, such as using textbooks, which cannot generate students’ interest in class activities.
course content, show little interest
Another reason why students are not interested in school work is that they think the knowledge is theoretical and even useless to their job in the future. Most teachers do not have experience working in industry, and they teach theories, formulas and concepts that are possibly not used widely in the workplace. Students spend hours doing homework and digesting course content, but they may find this kind of knowledge is of little value when they graduate. They will raise questions about the value of attending school and show little interest in schooling.
exam-oriented, exam techniques, develop interests/ hobbies, diversify skills
Another reason is that the school curriculum does not help students develop talents and skills. Schools are all exam-oriented, and classes are all designed for teaching exam techniques. Teachers hardly pay attention to developing students’ interests/ hobbies and diversifying their skills. They lose the motivation to study hard if they realise that they are not gifted in what they learn.
learning difficulties, school work, stay well-motivated
Exposure to neglect is also considered as a cause for students’ negative attitude towards school education. Teachers do not have energy to care for all students in the classroom, especially those who experience learning difficulties, while parents are busy at work and do not have time to give children sufficient support in school work. As a result, students may not stay well-motivated in education.
school bullying, copy wrong behaviour, taking drugs, school performance, low self-esteem
The negative peer pressure or behavioural problems of fellow students may be a reason why children have a negative attitude towards education. Some children are unwilling to go to school because they are the victim of school bullying. Meanwhile, some children tend to copy misbehaviour/wrong behaviour of their peers, such as playing games, taking drugs and smoking. This can have an impact on school performance/grades. They might lack confidence and have low self-esteem. That is also another reason why they are not willing to go to school to study.
teaching aids, make every class interesting and engaging, visual input, sound effects
One useful way to fuel students’ enthusiasm for studies is to use modern technology. Teachers can use some hi-tech teaching aids, such as projectors, which have stimulating content, including visual input and sound effects. This might attract students’ attention and arouse their interest in courses.
tailor courses to the levels and needs of students, build confidence
Additionally, teaching can be individualised to provide students with relevant support, thus stimulating students’ interest in school education. Students have different characteristics, meaning that they need different teaching materials or methods. If teachers can tailor courses to match the needs of learners, students can grasp course content more easily. Thus students will be motivated to study harder.
do work experience, apply theory to practice, practical implications
Another practical method to deal with the students’ aversion to education might provide them with internship opportunities. Schools can work with some companies to allow students to do work
experience and apply theory to practice. Students can see the practical implications of what they learn at school and put more effort in studies.
natural ability, excel at, measure of excellence, build confidence, a sense of pride
Schools should also respect the talents of students. They may have the natural ability to excel at different skills or subjects. Schools should provide different courses, instead of using the performance of some core subjects as the only measure of excellence of students. The education system should recognise their aptitude in respective areas of study, thereby helping them build confidence. This is how they can gain a sense of pride in schooling.
It is also important to give children time for play and leisure activities, so education will be less demanding. They do not have nergy or cognitive skills to handle tough workloads. It is therefore necessary to reduce the amount of homework to a degree where children can fully digest all information and catch up with peers. If they balance studies and leisure, they can maintain enthusiasm more easily.
Teachers can give students encouragement and rewards. Children do not have a clear idea what they intend to achieve in the future, and therefore, they need the positive reinforcement of others to gain confidence in their choices. Teachers can praise them to recognise their effort and present some rewards to acknowledge their success. They will continue to put their efforts in attaining other academic objectives.
establish trust、 win trust, lie to others/deceive others,out of self-interest
Successful people can win the trust of others since they have moral integrity. They would not be motivated by self-interest to do anything that is likely to hurt others, such as frauds. Mutual trust paves the way for cooperation, and this means that they work together to achieve goals. Meanwhile, it holds the key to a productive relationship, as people are willing to convey ideas openly. They can accomplish something more efficiently.
解释：学习，工作 解释（B-C ):解决问题
receive an education, practical problems
Another attribute of successful people is industriousness. They put energy and time in receiving an education to gain knowledge. They also work hard to increase experience and develop expertise. What they have done will finally pay off in the future, as they are capable of dealing with some practical problems and complex tasks.
背景：人的精力有限，而做完一个事业需要时间和精力 解释（B-C ):制定计划，每天知道做什么
a sense of purpose, clear objectives, require time and energy, work out plans, make to-do lists
The successful people always have a sense of purpose, as well as clear objectives. People’s energy is limited, while achieving success in one’s career requires time and energy. They have a clear idea of what they desire to do, so they will work out a plan and make to-do lists every single day. For example, people who intend to become renowned scientists may attend science courses at school and spend many hours doing experiments in the lab, until they make meaningful strides in the areas of studies
show perseverance, persist with the course of action, build expertise, hone skills, reflect on mistakes, give advantages
Persistence is needed for having a successful career. Success is not achieved overnight, and there are setbacks and challenges on the way to success. If they can persist with a specific course of action, they will build expertise, hone skills, reflect on mistakes and optimise the methods and mechanisms of completing work, doing a project or running a business. This kind of perseverance can give them some advantages not possessed by others.
解释（A-B ):学习能力更强，记忆力更强，对知识理解更深 解释（A-B ):将一些知识联系起来，想出解决办法
ingenious ideas, intellectual skills, grasp theories, creative solutions, draw upon knowledge
Some successful people are also intelligent enough to come up with some ingenious ideas that lead to success. They have exceptional intellectual skills, meaning that they can easily memorise knowledge and grasp abstract theories and concepts. They can connect different pieces of knowledge logically and develop creative solutions by drawing upon knowledge of different disciplines. This is how they can succeed by doing something unusual.
解释（A-B ):样貌能够在工作或者社交场合给别人留下深刻的印象 解释（B-C ):他们接受挑战的时彳候，他们都有资源可以使用
have a fulfilling career, make a favourable impression, in work or social contexts, enlarge the circle of friends, draw upon resources
Some people who have a fulfilling career are meanwhile glamorous. Their looks can make a favourable impression on others in work or social contexts, so they can enlarge the circle of friends easily. This means that they have resources to draw upon, whenever they meet challenges. When running a business, for example, they may borrow money and gain advice from friends they meet in business settings or networking events. These resources can make their business more financially viable.
解释（A-B ):不能轻易发怒，会破坏关系 解释（A-B ):遇到挫折的时候，保持乐观
manage emotions, lose temper, destroy/damage/hurt the relationship encounter difficulties/ experience setbacks, stay optimistic/positive
Successful people are also known for their high emotional intelligence, which is shown in the ability to get along well with others and to cope with stress. They would not easily lose temper, as they know it would damage their relationship with others. When they face challenges, they stay positive and their optimism can influence their followers. This is why they can maintain morale in the face of adversity and work side by side to accomplish something together.
Act as a game changer, face criticisms, put ideas into practice, achieve fame and fortune
People who have a distinguished career also are brave enough to take risks and break the mould. When they see the drawbacks of a policy, a work practice, a business or even an industry, they feel the need to do something revoluntionary and to act as a game changer. They may fail to achieve goals or they may face criticisms from others. Despite all these difficulties, they put their ideas into practice to change the world for better. They achieve fame and fortune if they succeed in proving that their ideas are correct.
解释（A-B ):比较通情达理，理解别人的需求和担忧 解释（B-C ):最好开发出好的产品 解释（A-B ):愿意帮助别人 解释（B-C ):获得支持
a strong sense of responsibility, derive pleasure, empathise, devote effort to, give a helping hand
Successful people have a strong sense of responsibility and derive pleasure from helping others. They can empathise with others and understand the needs and concerns of others. This explains why they strive for excellence and devote effort to providing the best products and services that make users happy. This is a key factor contributing to business success. Meanwhile, as they are keen to give a helping hand to others, they are popular with colleagues, clients and friends. They can garner support from others easily whenever they need it.