- watch TV news 看电视新闻
- listen to radio broadcasting 听收音机广播
- keep up to date with 跟上
- beaking news 突发新闻
- deliver information to readers 推送消息给读者
- time-consuming 耗时的
The Internet and watching TV news or listening to radio broadcasting allow people to keep up to date with what is happening. People can see breaking news online and all news organisations have websites and mobile apps to deliver information to readers. When a story breaks, people can also listen to it on radio or watch it on TV. In contrast, books are normally outdated, as editing and publishing of a book normally follow time-consuming procedures. People do not expect to read news on books.
- audio and visual information 视听信息
- make sense 理解
- detailed account 详细的记述
- visual messages视觉信息
- literacy skills识字能力
The Internet and TV programmes present both audio and visual information, so it is easier for people to make sense what has happened. Websites have videos, pictures as well as a detailed account of a news event, a subject or a theory. TV channels also have these advantages and visual messages are normally more straightforward and informative. In contrast, books predominantly provide information in text, and only attract people who have strong literacy skills.
- a source of knowledge 知识来源
- leam a subject in depth 深入学习一门学科
- post opinions and views 发表意见观点
- a credible source of information 可靠的信息来源
- educational programmes 教 育节目
The Internet or TV programmes is however not a favourite source of knowledge for people who want to learn a subject in depth. One problem of the Internet is that people can post opinions and views freely and sometimes, their ideas are not supported by evidence. This is why the Internet is not accepted as a credible source of information in academic communities. TV shows are normally interrupted by advertisements, and even educational programmes intend to be entertaining. For these reasons, serious readers favour books whenever they intend to deepen their understanding of a subject in question.
Using digital material rather than reading physical books can help preserve the environment as it can reduce the consumption of natural resources and cut pollution. As the production of print books decreases, the demand for wood pulp and the destruction of forest will decline.
Reading books is sometimes favoured by those avid readers. They love holding books in hands, and the smell of new books they purchase. It is also easier to make notes on margins of print books as well as highlight key words and sentences. They tend to keep books which they enjoy reading, instead of electronic versions. Some of them like reading in libraries or cafes where the quiet atmosphere allows for deep reading. In contrast, reading on screen is less favourable as they can be distracted by films, videos and other kinds of content online.
- sell products 卖产品
- satisfy some needs of consumers 满足顾客的需求
- give an exaggerated account of functions 夸大产品的功能描述
- emphasise the educational benefits强调教育好处
- improve air quality提升空气质量
- health concerns健康担忧
One common strategy adopted by advertisers to sell products is to give an exaggerated account of functions and suggest that these products can satisfy some needs of consumers. Advertising firms conduct research on the basic needs of people for money and health. Some companies, for example, promote their products by emphasising the educational benefits, and people buy these products, fearing that they may lag behind others if they are not knowledgeable enough. Similarly, there are a broad range of products designed for dealing with health issues, such as toothpaste for oral health, fitness equipment for work-outs, machines for improving air quality indoor, and soap for killing germs. All these products may not be as powerful as promoted by advertising, but they are popular with people who have health concerns.
- a sense of security 安全感
- fit into a group 融入组群
- hi-tech gadget 高科技产品
- resist the temptation抵抗诱惑
Advertising also influences consumers by tapping into their need to belong. Humans are social animals, and derive a sense of security from fitting into a group , they think they belong to. Advertisers sometimes use statistics to show how popular a product is among some people, or launch campaigns featuring people who have the same characteristics as intended consumers. If viewers identify with the characters in TV commercials, they would possibly buy advertised products. They believe that it is a group norm, and something that they need to conform to. Otherwise, they do not have talking points with other members of the same group. For example, if advertising suggests that a hi-tech gadget is used by a majority of housewives, it is difficult for a woman to resist the temptation to buy it.
- high-profile figures 高调的人
- enhance their own physical strength and performance in…提高他们的 体能和表现
- energy drinks功能饮料
- improve appearance变得好看
Another way to sway consumers to buy something is celebrity endorsement. People who admire celebrities may think purchasing the same products as those high-profile figures can become glamorous, physically fit and intelligent. Some young consumers, for instance, purchase energy drinks advocated by sports stars, as they strongly believe that these drinks can enhance their own physical strength and performance in games and competitions. Girls, by contrast, purchase cosmetics, accessories and outfits promoted by supermodels and TV personalities, believing that wearing all these products can improve appearance.
- promote status symbols 社会地位
- self-esteem 自尊心
- feel a sense of satisfaction and pride 有满足感 和自豪感
- afford some luxury brands 购买一些奢侈品
- cater for the psychological needs 满足心理需求
- create premium brands创造优质产品
Advertising also taps into social comparison of people and build some brands as status symbols. People associate the possession of some products with self-esteem, especially in economies where the income gap is widening. They feel a sense of satisfaction and pride, if they can afford some luxury brands. To cater for the psychological needs of these consumers, the advertising industry has sought to create a
number of premium brands which target the high end market. If people perceive these brands as a marker of status, they will spend lavishly on these items.
- shape consumer behaviour 形成用户行为
- reliable, well-known brands 依赖的，知名品牌
- make well-informed decisions 做出明确的决定
- branded products 知名品牌产品
- virtuous cycle 良性循环
- brand awareness 品牌知名度
Advertising can also shape consumer behaviour by helping them choose reliable, well-known brands. Advertising bridges the gap between buyers and suppliers by providing information about the functions, features and advantages of some products and services. Consumers can make well-informed decisions with the tips provided by advertisers, and some branded products which outperform rivals in quality, durability and other standards will stand out over time. This can form a virtuous cycle: the manufacturer of a better product is normally more profitable and capable of sustaining the expenditure on marketing. As marketing maintains the awareness of a brand, consumers will continue to buy it and provide money required for the upgrading of this product.
news media, political parties, news articles, political scandals, news outlets, political figures, manipulate the audience
Sometimes news is unreliable since news media is controlled by the government or by political parties in some countries. The authorities sometimes censor news articles which expose political scandals or criticize government policy. Powerful politicians can influence news organizations by increasing or withdrawing funding, so news outlets are under pressure to portray these political figures in a positive
light. In some cases, the government can even shut down some newspapers or TV stations for not complying with orders or reporting news to manipulate the audience in the ways demanded by the government. As a result, the news is biased and the public cannot get the truth from the media.
economic profit, news agencies, market demands, fake news, spread rumours, give an exaggerated account, high ratings
Another reason why news is sometimes not credible is that in some countries news media relies on the sponsorship of private companies, whose ultimate target is to seek maximum economic profit. These news agencies are obedient to market demands, and more often than not, the news they select may create fake news, spread rumours or even giving an exaggerated account of a news event, to draw the attention of the readers and audiences and entertain them, in pursuit of high audience ratings and sales. As a result, the news reports provided by these news media companies are no longer reliable.
3.1.3 A网络媒体成为主流媒体之一 ，B网络媒体没有得到很好的监管，C新闻信息失实
source of information, digital news, spread information, distort facts, make up stories, extra-marital affairs, gain fame
Online news is not widely accepted as a reliable source of information since digital news is not well regulated. Everyone can spread information via social networking sites and Internet watchdogs do not have resources to check millions of new postings which are created on a daily basis. Some individuals or organizations also deliberately make use of network media which sometimes helps to spread news faster than print media. This provides the possibility of distorting the facts. For example, some unscrupulous journalists even make up stories, such as extra-marital affairs of some celebrities, in hopes of attracting readers’ attention and gaining fame.
political propaganda, politically controlled
Some news organisations are politically controlled. The news stories they produce are possibly used as political propaganda.
keep pace with times, technological advances, economic events, political affairs, make well-informed decisions
Reading news can expose people to knowledge. It is difficult for an average person to visit different places to learn about the world, as they live a busy life. Reading or watching news enables them to keep pace with times and get to know technological advances, economic events, political affairs and other current issues. With such knowledge, they are capable of making well-informed decisions.
manipulate the public, twist facts, make up fake news, distort view, political pressure, give a balanced account, biased views, personal values, political opinions
News sometimes can manipulate the public. News media may twist facts or even make up fake news to distort the audience’s view of some issues, possibly because news organisations are under political pressure or do that for commercial interests. Another reason is that reporters sometimes are not able to give a balanced account of news events since they have biased views-affected by their personal values and political opinions. As a consequence, people may not gain correct information by reading news.
critical thinking skills, contrasting views, arrive at different conclusions, think deeply, leap to a conclusion
Reading news can improve critical thinking skills. News outlets can describe, interpret and analyse the same news events in different ways, and show contrasting views; therefore, people will understand that they may arrive at different conclusions when seeing an issue from different perspectives. Meanwhile, by reading or watching news, people may realise that a problem can be tackled by individuals, organisations or countries in diverse ways, and they will understand the importance of comparing different solutions. This means that they are able to evaluate information critically and think deeply about the quality of information, instead of leaping to a conclusion.
- widen knowledge and broaden horizons 扩宽知识和眼界
- the diversity of the world’s cultures 世界文化的多样性
- world-famous figures世界知名人物
- have a place in history在历史上有一席之位
- provide viewers with information and technology 给观赏者提供知识和科技
The benefit of watching TV and going to the cinema is that people can widen knowledge and broaden horizons. TV programmes and films, especially those made in other countries, show the audience the diversity of the world’s cultures, which are shown in values, beliefs, customs and ways of life. Some documentaries, history epic films and films about world-famous figures are informative, providing viewers with information about technology, historical events as well as people who have a place in history. They may not have this kind of knowledge unless they like reading.
get away from the monotony of daily lives 远离无聊的生活
an exceptional visual experience 非凡的视觉体验
a form of escapism解脱单调生活的方式
Watching TV or movies is also a pastime which allows people to feel relaxed. TV drama, comedy films and action movies can help people get away from the monotony of daily lives. Films make them laugh and sometimes move them to tears, taking their minds off work for a couple of hours. Watching some 3D films is an exceptional visual experience as filmmakers use special effect and the cinema has big screens as well as loud speakers. This can offer people a form of escapism.
- benefit one’s family and social relationships 对—个人的家庭和社会关系有好处
- lead a busy life 导致了繁忙的生活
- compensate for dwinding family time 弥补了家庭时间
- watch soap operas and sitcoms 看肥皂剧和情景喜剧
- experience a sense of closeness 体验亲密感
- blockbuster films 大片电影
- talking points 话题
Watching films or TV can sometimes benefit one’s family life and social relationships. As people lead a busy life every day, it is less realistic to spend hours doing leisure activities with family, but watching TV at home can compensate for dwindling family time. People can enjoy some TV shows with their family, and watching soap operas and sitcoms, in particular, provides some amusement for family.
They feel relaxed and experience a sense of closeness when laughing together. Going to the cinema with friends is a social activity, and some blockbuster films serve as talking points among people.
- affect people’s behavior 影响人们的行为
- shape their views 形成他们的观点
- realise the differences between realities and stories 意识到显示和故事的不同
- copy the acts of the violence模仿暴力行为
- know the full consequences of their behaviour 知道他们行为的全部后果
- historical figures 历史人物
- create stereotypes创造刻板印象
TV programmers and films can sometimes affect people’s behavior by shaping their views about the world. Some people fail to realize the differences between realities and stories they watch on screen. For example, some teenagers may copy the acts of violence of characters in action films without knowing the full consequences of their behaviour. Some people may sometimes not be aware that the films they watch about some historical figures or foreign countries do not reflects all facts. These films may create stereotypes.
解释（A-B) —些人看电视剧会入迷，因为他们对故事的结尾很感兴趣，会被情节所吸引，这就会浪费一 些宝贵的时间，他们可以用这些时间做更多有意义的事情，比如阅读
- waste time 浪费时间
- interfere with work and studies 干扰工作和学习
- be addicted to doing sth 沉迷于做某事
- undermine one’s ability to work or study 削弱工作或者学习的能力
- well-disciplined 自律
Binge watching will waste time and interfere with work and studies. Some people are addicted to watching some TV series, as they are curious about the ending of the story and attracted to plots. This can take away valuable time they can spend in more meaningful activities, such as reading. Long screen time can also impair vision and undermine one’s ability to work or study effectively. This is especially harmful for teenagers who are not well-disciplined.
Watching TV and films can undermine people’s social skills and affect children’s social development adversely. Children pay attention to films and TV programmes, instead of spending time socialising with their peers. Meanwhile, they hardly read books and cannot develop a vocabulary from a young age, since their favourite programmes, such as cartoon films, do not teach them a repertoire of new words. Finally, people gaze at the screen to watch their favourite TV shows, while ignoring the interactions with their family. These problems have become more serious than ever before since they can watch all these films and TV series now on the phone.